Orcaella heinsohni 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae

Scientific Name: Orcaella heinsohni Beasley, Robertson & Arnold, 2005
Common Name(s):
English Australian Snubfin Dolphin
Orcaella brevirostris
Taxonomic Notes: Until 2005, the genus Orcaella was considered monotypic, with the Irrawaddy Dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) being the only species (Rice 1998). In 2005, a study on the external and skull morphology, colour pattern, and mitochondrial DNA control region using samples from much of the genus’s range, showed that the Orcaella in Australia differ from those elsewhere and they are now regarded as a separate species, the Australian Snubfin Dolphin (Orcaella heinsohni) (Beasley et al. 2005). No subspecies are recognised.

Recent genetic analyses including samples from Papua New Guinea, and new samples from northern Australia (including the type specimen of O. heinsohni), confirmed the occurrence of the Australian Snubfin Dolphin in at least southern Papua New Guinea (Beasley et al. 2017).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2017-06-06
Assessor(s): Parra, G., Cagnazzi, D. & Beasley, I.
Reviewer(s): Bell, E.M., Double, M., Taylor, B.L. & Reeves, R.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Lowry, L.

Considering the available evidence and following a precautionary approach, Snubfin Dolphins are Vulnerable under IUCN criterion C2a(i) because: 1) the total number of mature individuals is likely fewer than 10,000, 2) there is an inferred continuing decline due to cumulative impacts of habitat degradation and modification, incidental capture in recreational and commercial fishing gear, water pollution, and climate change, and 3) each of the defined subpopulations studied to date is estimated to contain fewer than 1,000 mature individuals. Furthermore, the species meets criterion A for Vulnerable under the subcriteria A2, A3 and A4 because a reduction of at least 30% over three generations (60 years) is suspected in the past (A2), in a time period including both the past and the future (A4), and in the future alone (A3) based primarily on (c) a decline in habitat quality and (d) actual and potential levels of exploitation (in the form of bycatch in nets). In all three cases, the causes of the reduction have not ceased, are not well understood and may be irreversible.

Although the species may not meet any of the criteria for Endangered at this time, it is likely to do so under C2a(i) in the near future because: 1) the number of mature individuals is or will be fewer than 2,500, 2) the reductions in population size either have been or will be large and pervasive enough to cause a net reduction for the entire species of at least 20% over a period of 2 generations, and 3) the number of mature individuals in each subpopulation across the range either is or will be ≤ 250 individuals.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Australian Snubfin Dolphins (hereafter referred to as Snubfin Dolphins) inhabit coastal, shallow waters of the tropical and subtropical zones of Australia and southern Papua New Guinea (Beasley et al. 2017, Parra and Cagnazzi 2017). The distribution map accompanying this assessment depicts the inferred distribution as a continuous band throughout coastal waters within the 20 m isobath in countries where these dolphins are known or believed to occur. Although distribution is considered continuous across the range, the occurrence of Snubfin Dolphins along the northern Australia coast and southern Papua New Guinea is poorly documented (Parra et al. 2002). Gaps in occurrence of several hundred kilometres are apparent along the east coast of Queensland (Cagnazzi et al. 2013b).

In Australia, Snubfin Dolphins have been reported from Exmouth Gulf in Western Australia (Allen et al. 2012), across the northern coastline (Palmer et al. 2011) and the Gulf of Carpentaria, and south along the east coast to as far south as the Brisbane River (Paterson et al. 1998, Parra et al. 2002). Sightings south of Roebuck Bay in Western Australia and south of Keppel Bay in Queensland are rare and considered extralimital.

In Papua New Guinea, Snubfin Dolphins are known to inhabit the Kikori Delta from Morigio Island east to Baimurru. It is likely that they also occur further east to Karema, which is situated at the headwaters of the Purari River. No Snubfin Dolphins have been sighted around the Daru region or west of Morigio Island, although only limited opportunistic surveys were undertaken (Beasley et al. 2014, 2017).

There are currently no confirmed records of Snubfin Dolphins from other regions of the Pacific Islands. Anecdotal sightings of Snubfin Dolphins have been reported from the Solomon Islands (Bass 2010). However, these records were provided during interviews to investigate the status of Dugongs (Dugong dugon) in the Solomon Islands, therefore the identification (at both species and genus levels) is highly uncertain.
Countries occurrence:
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – western central
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):20
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Population Abundance
At present, there is no range-wide estimate of the abundance of Snubfin Dolphins. Estimates of abundance from mark-recapture studies of photo-identified individuals are only available for a few selected populations across Australia (see Table 1 in the Supplementary Material). Available abundance estimates indicate that Snubfin Dolphins occur in small populations of typically fewer than 150 individuals. Places where abundance has been estimated in Queensland include Cleveland Bay (310 km²) with estimates ranging from 64 (95% confidence interval (CI) 51-80) to 76 (95% CI 65-88) (Parra et al. 2006a) and Keppel Bay with estimates of 71 (95% CI 61-80) to 80 (95% CI 68-93) (Cagnazzi et al. 2013b). Available abundance estimates in the Northern Territory are of 19 (18-20) to 70 (49-90) in the Darwin region (1,086 km²) (Brooks et al. 2017) and 136 (95% CI 58-317) to 222 (95% CI 146-336) in Port Essington (Palmer et al. 2014a). An estimated 133 (95% CI 127-148) Snubfin Dolphins inhabit waters of Roebuck Bay and 48 (95% CI 41-58) to 54 (95% CI 51-60) the waters of Cygnet Bay, Western Australia (Brown et al. 2016).

Population Trend
There is no quantitative information on trends in abundance across the species’ range. Studies in Cleveland Bay indicated that even with relatively unbiased and precise abundance estimates, population trends would be extremely difficult to detect in less than three years unless changes in population size were greater than 20% per year (Parra et al. 2006a). A multiyear study (ongoing since 2006) in Keppel Bay, Central Queensland, showed that between 2006-2010 abundance estimates of Snubfin Dolphins remained stable at around 70-80 individuals (Cagnazzi 2013), before starting to decline slightly in 2011 to about 68 (64-72) individuals in 2013 (Cagnazzi unpub. data). The decline in abundance estimates was associated with a period of extensive summer flooding that has been affecting this region every summer since 2010. Even though the negative trend is small and the 95% CIs of the estimates overlap, the decline has been consistent since 2011. Indices of abundance, including proportion of marked individuals observed in recent surveys (2014-2016) in the same area, showed a substantial variation across years with the lower estimates being 100 (68-147) in 2014, 163 (132-200) in 2015 and 103 (74-144) in 2016 (Cagnazzi unpub. data).

Population Structure
Genetic analyses conducted on biopsies collected across two nearby populations in the Kimberly, Western Australia (i.e., Roebuck Bay and Cygnet Bay ~ 250 km apart) showed significant levels of population structure at both mitochondrial and nuclear markers (Brown et al. 2014). Contemporary migration rates per generation (20 years) between these two sampling locations were low (< 10%, m < 0.1). Similar results were obtained for three sampling locations in Central Queensland (Cleveland Bay, Keppel Bay, Whitsundays) that are 250-400 km apart (Parra et al. unpublished data). No genetic information on population structure is available from the Northern Territory of Australia or from Papua New Guinea. Overall, the available genetic data suggest that Snubfin Dolphins exist as a metapopulation of small, largely isolated population fragments with limited gene flow.

The limited data presented above indicate that the Snubfin Dolphin has a restricted and discontinuous geographical distribution, occurs mainly over a narrow strip of shallow coastal waters, occurs in relatively small subpopulations, and the subpopulations are relatively isolated with limited gene flow among them. No subpopulation studied to date is larger than 250 mature individuals (Table 1 in the Supplementary Material). Therefore, it is highly likely that the largest subpopulation has <1,000 mature individuals and that there could well be fewer than 10,000 mature individuals across the range.

Similar to other small cetaceans, Snubfin Dolphins are long-lived (at least 28-30 years), have slow rates of increase (0.037, range 0.02-0.06), late maturity (reproductive maturity at 8-10 years of age) and low reproductive rates (one calf every 2-5 years) (Moore 2015), making them particularly vulnerable to even low rates of human-caused mortality. For example, based on model estimates of intrinsic growth rate (0.037) and generation time (20) for Snubfin Dolphins, Moore (2015) estimated that human-caused mortality rates of 4.4%, 5.0% and 6.5% would lead to declines of 30%, 50% and 80% in population size after three generations. These threshold mortality rates correspond to Vulnerable (VU), Endangered (EN) and Critically Endangered (CR) under the A criterion (population size reduction).

Although there is little quantitative data on Snubfin Dolphin population trends, a declining population can be inferred throughout many parts of the range given the species’ high vulnerability to human-caused mortality (e.g., from bycatch in gillnets and shark nets), its restricted distribution and reliance on coastal and riverine waters, the low estimates of abundance in surveyed areas, and the increasing habitat degradation and destruction throughout its range.
For further information about this species, see 136315_Orcaella_heinsohni.pdf.
A PDF viewer such as Adobe Reader is required.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:9000-10000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:6Continuing decline in subpopulations:No
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Studies to date indicate that Snubfin Dolphins occur mainly within shallow, protected coastal and estuarine habitats (Parra et al. 2002, 2006b; Parra 2006, Allen et al. 2012, Palmer et al. 2014b, Brown et al. 2016). A study conducted in far northern Queensland indicated that Snubfin Dolphins occurred mostly in waters less than 15 m deep, within 10 km of the coast, and no more than 20 km from the nearest river mouth (Parra et al. 2006b). In Cleveland Bay, Snubfin Dolphins preferred shallow water < 2 m deep and shallow areas with seagrass beds (Parra 2006). Similarly, in Keppel Bay the dolphins’ core area of use coincided with the Fitzroy River estuary (Cagnazzi et al. 2013b). Within this range, Snubfin Dolphins used shallow (2–5 m), shallow subtidal (5–10 m), and moderate-depth (10–15 m) habitat more frequently than expected by chance. In contrast, intertidal (0–2 m) and deeper water (15–20 m) were used less frequently than expected by chance (Cagnazzi et al. 2013b). Boat-based surveys conducted between Keppel Bay and Cleveland Bay further strengthen the importance of riverine-estuarine systems to Snubfin Dolphins in Queensland. The only resident population of Snubfin Dolphins along 800 km of coastline between Cleveland Bay and Keppel Bay was found at the mouth of the Proserpine River in the Whitsundays (Cagnazzi 2017).

In the Northern Territory, most records of Snubfin Dolphins are from estuaries, tidal rivers and coastal areas within 20 km of river mouths. In the Gulf of Carpentaria, Snubfin Dolphins occur up to 20 km offshore, likely because of the consistently shallow waters of the Gulf, being less than 10 m deep in many regions 20-30 km offshore. Some Snubfin Dolphins have been recorded up to 30–50 km upstream in larger tidal rivers and at least as far as 10 km offshore (Palmer et al. 2014a,b). Studies in Western Australia also indicate Snubfin Dolphins mainly occur in shallow coastal areas (Brown et al. 2016).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):20
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There is no evidence of traditional use or trade for consumption or medicinal use across the Snubfin Dolphin’s range in Australia. There are anecdotal reports of deliberate catches in southern Papua New Guinea, particularly from the Daru and Baimurru regions (Beasley et al. 2014, 2017).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): General
The biological features discussed above render the Snubfin Dolphin particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic threatening processes, including habitat degradation and modification, accidental captures in gillnets and shark exclusion devices, direct catches, vessel strikes, noise pollution, chemical pollution, prey depletion, disease and climate change. The impact and extent of anthropogenic threats varies across regions, with some subpopulations facing greater threats than others. The most pervasive threats across the species’ distribution are habitat degradation and modification, incidental capture in fishing gear and shark control nets, water pollution, climate change and the cumulative impact of these threats.

Current threats affecting the population now, and likely to affect the population in future

Habitat degradation and modification
Habitat loss and degradation has been identified among the primary drivers of population declines of large marine animals (Lotze and Worm 2009). Habitat degradation and modification consists of human activities associated with land reclamation, dredging, seismic surveys, drilling, blasting, shipping, and resource extraction that can result in habitat loss and degradation for Snubfin Dolphins. These activities are known to cause local changes in the composition, structure, and function of the coastal and estuarine habitats, through direct removal of habitat (seagrass, mangroves), physical disturbance, sedimentation, increasing commercial and recreational vessel traffic, increasing noise and chemical pollution, and introduction of viral and bacterial pathogens. Such stressors, when combined with the continuing intensification of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) as a result of climate change, and the associated fluctuations in sea levels, are likely to reduce the quality of Snubfin Dolphin habitat. For example, recent extensive diebacks (7,400 ha) of mangrove forests in the Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia and in Mangrove Bay (40 ha) in north Western Australia were associated with prolonged drought, high temperatures, and a low sea-level event (Duke et al. 2017, Lovelock et al. 2017). The individual, as well as the cumulative, effects of the above threats are a cause of concern for the long-term viability of Australia’s inshore dolphin populations (Bejder et al. 2012, DOE 2015, Parra and Cagnazzi 2017).

The coastal zone along Snubfin Dolphins’ range, particularly in northwestern Australia and along the central coast of Queensland, has been substantially modified both inland, to allow mining, agricultural and grazing activities, and along the coast to allow industrial ports, marinas, aquaculture and residential developments (Allen et al. 2012, Bejder et al. 2012, Queensland Government 2012). For example, by 2020 the port capacity along the coast of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA) is expected to triple to support the predicted growth in Queensland’s annual coal production (Grech et al. 2013, 2015). IUCN considered this unprecedented scale of development as a serious threat to biodiversity in the GBRWHA (Douvere and Badman 2012).

Activities associated with coastal development, such as land reclamation, vessel traffic and construction, may result in the physical loss and degradation of habitat for cetaceans (Jefferson et al. 2009, Pirotta et al. 2013). The reduction of suitable habitat may force local populations of Snubfin Dolphins to adjust to the remaining resources through a reduction in survival rate and population size, or emigration to more suitable (though probably suboptimal) areas (Andren 1994, Fahrig 1997, Jefferson 2000). Dredging involved in the construction, maintenance and expansion of ports is of particular concern (Pirotta et al. 2013, Todd et al. 2015). Because most ports across the Snubfin Dolphins’ range are located in relatively shallow waters, they all require large volumes of dredging. For example, the Gladstone Western Basin project in Queensland involved the dredging of 22 million cubic meters of soil (Ports Australia 2014).

In addition to their impacts on dolphin habitat, these activities may disturb cetaceans through physical displacement and increased underwater noise (Jensen et al. 2009, Pirotta et al. 2013, Rako et al. 2013). For example, in the Fitzroy River, Queensland, it was estimated that two proposed port developments would have overlapped with 14% (49 km²) of the representative range and 17.7% (41 km²) of the core area used by Snubfin Dolphins (Cagnazzi et al. 2013b). The impacted area likely would have been substantially larger considering the indirect effects of the construction activities on the nearby habitats and the long-term consequences of daily operating activities on the entire area as result of seabed ‘reclamation’, percussive pile driving, dredging, increased vessel traffic and a decline in water quality (Cagnazzi et al. 2013b).

Additionally, habitat loss and fragmentation from coastal zone developments and associated activities can influence the population genetic structure of biological populations through their isolation (Keyghobadi 2007). Given the low densities, population genetic structure and limited gene flow found among populations of Snubfin Dolphins, a further loss of genetic variation may reduce the ability of individuals to adapt to a changing environment, cause inbreeding depression (reduced survival and reproduction) and increase their probability of extinction (Dixon et al. 2007, Andrews 2014, Brown et al. 2014).

Incidental capture
Entanglement or bycatch of dolphins in recreational and commercial fishing gear is one of the most serious threats to marine mammal populations and species around the world (Read et al. 2006, Read 2008). Snubfin Dolphins are susceptible to entanglement, especially in gillnets, which are often found closer to the mouths of rivers, creeks and estuaries where Snubfin Dolphins are more likely to be found (Parra et al. 2002, Parra and Jedensjö 2009). Snubfin Dolphins have been killed in localized areas along the east coast of Queensland in anti-shark nets set to protect bathers (Heinsohn 1979, Parra et al. 2004). The Queensland Shark Control Program (QSCP) has been in operation since the early 1960s across many Queensland beaches, using nets, drum lines, or a combination of both to reduce the perceived risk of shark attack. Between 1967 and 1987, 520 dolphins were caught in Queensland shark nets. The Snubfin Dolphin was the most frequently bycaught species in nets north of Mackay (Paterson 1990) with the maximum average of about 10 Snubfin Dolphins per year (assuming that all dolphins caught were Snubfin). In 1992, following the introduction of new methods to minimise by-catch, the number of Snubfin Dolphins caught in the shark nets between 1992 and 1995 declined to a maximum of 1.3 per year (Gribble et al. 1998). At present, 13 shark nets and 149 drum lines are operating in Queensland. Between 1997 and 2011, a total of 11 Snubfin Dolphins were caught in the QSCP corresponding to about 1.8 per year (Meager et al. 2012). Most captures of Snubfin Dolphins in shark nets occurred in the Cairns, Townsville, and Mackay areas, suggesting the potential for local stock depletion (Parra et al. 2002).

Snubfin Dolphins are also known to die in inshore gillnets set across creeks, rivers and shallow estuaries (Hale 1997, Parra et al. 2002). In southern Papua New Guinea bycatch in gillnet fisheries and at least occasional direct catches (of which there are anecdotal records, Beasley et al. 2014, 2017) are considered the most significant threats to Snubfin Dolphins. During a 15-day field trip to the Kikori Delta in 2015, five Snubfin Dolphins were confirmed as having been bycaught in large-mesh gillnets (Beasley et al. 2017). Although it is impossible to estimate the magnitude of Snubfin Dolphin bycatch throughout the species’ range, it is clear that even small numbers are unsustainable and would result in rapid local population declines.

Water pollution and climate change
Sources of anthropogenic contaminants are likely to increase in the future across northern Australia, as a result of the widespread use of several new pesticides (Smith et al. 2012), increasing annual runoff (Chiew and McMahon 2002), and rapid urban and industrial development. The water discharge by many rivers across the Snubfin Dolphin’s range in Australia is of poor quality, often with contaminant concentrations expected to cause environmental harm (Francey et al. 2010, Brodie et al. 2012, Schaffelke et al. 2012). Accordingly, a recent study detected high levels of organochlorines (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biopsies collected from Snubfin Dolphins on the Great Barrier Reef along the Queensland coast (Cagnazzi et al. 2013a). Although exposure to contaminants may not directly cause the death of an animal, it may affect its health in numerous ways, including increased susceptibility to disease and impairment of metabolic functions (De Swart et al. 1996, Bossart 2011).

In Queensland, floods normally exceed their natural ranges of variation due to inland catchment modifications that result in large amounts of fresh water discharge, sediment, heavy metals, nutrients and pesticides being discharged into the estuary and adjacent coastal areas (Brodie et al. 2003, Furnas 2003). The effects of a flood on dolphins generally are temporary until natural conditions are re-established (Fury and Harrison 2011). However, it has been suggested that peaks in dolphin mortality (Holyoake et al. 2009, Meager and Limpus 2014), such as those recorded in Queensland in 2011 (DEHP 2012), occur when floods are sustained for long periods. Modelling studies estimated that the annual runoff in catchments on the east coast of Australia could increase by up to 15% by the year 2030 (Chiew and McMahon 2002). Altered coastal conditions and projected increases in cyclone severity, floods, storm surges, and sea surface temperature could affect dolphin habitat and food resources (Lawler et al. 2007, Meager and Limpus 2014).

Cumulative impacts
The ongoing alteration of coastal systems has greatly undermined the resilience of many biotic communities, populations, and species living in estuaries, making them more vulnerable to environmental stochasticity and anthropogenic stressors (Hobday and Lough 2011). Such effects are likely to be exacerbated when natural systems are subjected to multiple stressors as a result of cumulative impacts and negative synergistic interactions (Venter et al. 2006, Crain et al. 2008, Halpern et al. 2008). Recent studies on other inshore dolphin populations living in highly industrialized regions have reported negative population trends. In the Pearl River estuary, China, modelling of demographic data suggested that Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have declined at about 2.4% per year (Huang et al. 2012), in the Yangtze River the population of Yangtze Finless Porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) has been declining at a rate of about 6% per year (Mei et al. 2012), while in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand, the local isolated Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops sp.) population declined by about 30% over a 12-year period (Currey et al. 2007). By analogy, a reduction in the number of Snubfin Dolphins is likely given the multiple impacts of port expansion, development projects, water pollution, vessel traffic and increasing frequency of natural catastrophic events.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Globally, this species was listed on the IUCN Red List as Near Threatened in 2008. It is listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) on Appendix II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). In Australia, Snubfin Dolphins are included on the list of migratory species under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation (EPBC) Act of 1999 and are listed as Near Threatened in The Action Plan for Australian Mammals 2012 (Woinarski et al. 2014)

The Australian Government invested $2 million over three years (2014-15 to 2016-17) for the implementation of a Whale and Dolphin Protection Plan. The National Dolphin Conservation Plan has promoted the conservation of dolphins in Australian waters by supporting research into inshore dolphin conservation, including investigating key threats and determining the conservation status of priority species such as the Snubfin Dolphin and the Australian Humpback Dolphin (Sousa sahulensis). To identify the primary research objectives to inform the conservation and management of Australia’s tropical inshore dolphins, an expert workshop was held on April 9-10, 2015 in Canberra. The resulting Inshore Dolphin National Research Strategy (DOE 2015) identified the following research objectives applicable to Snubfin and Humpback Dolphins: 1) provide for access to and analysis of standardised national tropical dolphin data to assess distribution and underpin management and conservation, 2) conduct long-term monitoring project to determine trends, mitigate impacts from threats, and support adaptive management and conservation of tropical inshore dolphins, 3) identify, map and assess threats to tropical inshore dolphins, understand related impacts, and mitigate risks, 4) improve knowledge of genetic connectivity dispersal and movement at national, regional and local scales, 5) foster collaborative and national approaches to effectively gather mortality, life history and dietary information from stranded and by-caught specimens, 6) foster community participation in data collection on tropical inshore dolphins and develop a continuous improvement approach to methods and related programs. Guidelines on sampling and statistical methods to achieve some of these objectives have been recently described in Brooks et al. (2014). The highest-priority enabling objective was 1) Indigenous Engagement: Foster effective and informed partnerships with Australia’s Indigenous communities to enable sustainable conservation management of tropical inshore dolphins.

Multiple-use marine protected areas in Western Australia (e.g., Shark Bay and Ningaloo Reef Marine Park) and Queensland (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Dugong Protected Areas; Moreton Bay Marine Park) cover a substantial portion of the Snubfin Dolphin’s known and presumed habitat and may provide some protection for this species.

Snubfin Dolphins were identified as having conservation value in Commonwealth waters around Australia in the North, Northwest, and Temperate East Marine bioregional plans (DSEWPaC 2012c,b,a). These plans were developed under section 176 of the EPBC Act and are aimed at improving management and decision making in relation to Australian marine biodiversity and resources.

National Guidelines for Whale and Dolphin Watching and for interaction with seismic surveys provide some protection for inshore dolphins (DOE 2005, 2008). Strategies to reduce the entanglement and death of Snubfin Dolphins in nets set by the QSCP for protection of bathers include the use of acoustic alarms, mixed use of nets and drumlines, overall reduction in the number of nets, and establishment of mammal rescue squads (Gribble et al. 1998, DPI 2001). However, continued deaths indicate that more effective strategies are required.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.1. Marine Neritic - Pelagic
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.9. Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.10. Marine Neritic - Estuaries
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.2. Policies and regulations
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.4. Storms & flooding
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.1. Oil & gas drilling
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.3. Shipping lanes
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.1. Oil spills
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.1. Nutrient loads
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

9. Pollution -> 9.6. Excess energy -> 9.6.3. Noise pollution
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

Bibliography [top]

Allen, S.J., Cagnazzi, D.D., Hodgson, A.J., Loneragan, N.R. and Bejder, L. 2012. Tropical inshore dolphins of north-western Australia: Unknown populations in a rapidly changing region. Pacific Conservation Biology 18: 56-63.

Andren, H. 1994. Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat: a review. Oikos 71: 355-366.

Andrews, K. 2014. Population Genetics in the Conservation of Cetaceans and Primates. Primates and Cetaceans, pp. 289-308. Springer.

Bass, D.K. 2010. Status of Dugong Dugong dugon and Australian Snubfin Dolphin Orcaella heinsohni, in the Solomon Islands. Pacific Conservation Biology 16: 133-143.

Beasley, I., Golding, M., Anamiato, J. 2014. Looking for dolphins and dugongs in the Kikori Delta of Papua New Guinea. James Cook University, Townsville.

Beasley, I., Jedensjö, M. and Anamiato, J. 2017. Confirmed Occurrence of the Australian snubfin dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni in Papua New Guinea. Paper SC/67a/SM_WP_04 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, May 2017, Bled, Slovenia.

Beasley, I., Robertson, K.M. and Arnold, P. 2005. Description of a new dolphin, the Australian snubfin dolphin Orcaella heinsohni sp. n. (Cetacea, Delphinidae). Marine Mammal Science 21(3): 365-400.

Bejder, L., Hodgson, A., Loneragan, N. and Allen, S. 2012. Coastal dolphins in North-Western Australia: the need for re-evaluation of species listings and short-comings in the environmental impact assessment process. Pacific Conservation Biology 18: 22-25.

Bossart, G.D. 2011. Marine Mammals as Sentinel Species for Oceans and Human Health. Veterinary Pathology Online 48: 676-690.

Brodie, J.E., Kroon, F.J., Schaffelke, B., Wolanski, E.C., Lewis, S.E., Devlin, M.J., Bohnet, I.C., Bainbridge, Z.T., Waterhouse, J. and Davis, A.M. 2012. Terrestrial pollutant runoff to the Great Barrier Reef: An update of issues, priorities and management responses. Marine Pollution Bulletin 65: 81-100.

Brodie, J.E., McKergow, L.A., Prosser, I.P., Furnas, M., Hughes, A.O. and Hunter, H. 2003. Sources of Sediment and Nutrient Exports to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Technical Report 03/11. Canberra, Australia.

Brooks L, Carroll E, Pollock KH. 2014. Methods for Assessment of the Conservation Status of Australian Inshore Dolphins. Final report to Department of the Environment.

Brooks L, Palmer C, Griffiths AD, Pollock KH. 2017. Monitoring Variation in Small Coastal Dolphin Populations: An Example from Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Frontiers in Marine Science 4.

Brown, A.M., Bejder, L., Pollock, K.H. and Allen, S.J. 2016. Site-specific assessments of the abundance of three inshore dolphin species to inform conservation and management. Frontiers in Marine Science 3: 4.

Brown, A.M., Kopps, A.M., Allen, S.J., Bejder, L., Littleford-Colquhoun, B., Parra, G.J., Cagnazzi, D., Thiele, D., Palmer, C. and Frère, C.H. 2014. Population Differentiation and Hybridisation of Australian Snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa chinensis) Dolphins in North-Western Australia. PLoS ONE 9(e101427).

Cagnazzi, D. 2013. Review of Coastal Dolphins in central Queensland, particularly Port Curtis and Port Alma regions. Gladstone Port Corporation. Queensland, Australia.

Cagnazzi, D. 2017. Increased understanding of the status of the Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins in Central Queensland: Mackay to Bowen. Final Report to The Australian Marine Mammal Centre (AMMC) of the Department of the Environment and Energy. Institute for Development, Environment and Sustainability (IDEAS), Marine Ecology Research Centre,Southern Cross University, Lismore, 2480, NSW.

Cagnazzi, D., Fossi, M.C., Parra, G.J., Harrison, P.L., Maltese, S., Coppola, D., Soccodato, A., Bent, M. and Marsili, L. 2013a. Anthropogenic contaminants in Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins from the central and southern Great Barrier Reef. Environmental Pollution 182: 490-494.

Cagnazzi, D., Parra, G.J., Westley, S., and Harrison, P.L. 2013b. At the heart of the industrial boom: Australian snubfin dolphins in the Capricorn coast, Queensland, need urgent conservation action. PLoS ONE 8: e56729.

Chiew, F.H.S. and McMahon, T.A. 2002. Modelling the impacts of climate change on Australian streamflow. Hydrological Processes 16: 1235-1245.

Crain, C.M., Kroeker, K., Halpem, B.S. 2008. Interactive and cumulative effects of multiple human stressors in marine systems. Ecological Letters 11: 1304-1315.

Currey, R.J.C., Dawson, S.M. and Slooten, E. 2007. New abundance estimates suggest Doubtful Sound bottlenose dolphins are declining. Pacific Conservation Biology 13: 265-273.

DEHP. 2012. Stranding Hot Spots. Department of Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland Government, http://www.ehp.qld.gov.au/wildlife/caringfor-wildlife/stranding-hotspots.html.

De Swart, R.L., Ross, P.S., Vos, J.G., Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. 1996. Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a longterm feeding study. Environmental Health Perspectives 104: 823-828.

Dixon, J.D., Oli, M.K., Wooten, M.C., Eason, T.H., McCown, J.W. and Cunningham, M.W. 2007. Genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation and loss: the case of the Florida black bear (Ursus americanus floridanus). Conservation Genetics 8: 455-464.

DOE. 2005. Australian National Guidelines for Whale and Dolphin Watching. Australia Department of the Environment.

DOE. 2008. EPBC Act Policy Statement 2.1 - Interaction between offshore seismic exploration and whales. Department of the Environment, http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/seismic.html.

DOE. 2015. A Coordinated National Research Framework to Inform the Conservation and Management of Australia’s Tropical Inshore Dolphins: the Australian snubfin dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni, the Australian humpback dolphin, Sousa sahulensis, and the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus. Australian Governement Department of the Environment Canberra, Australia.

Douvere, F., Badman, T. 2012. Reactive Monitoring Mission to Great Barrier Reef (Australia). UNESCO World Heritage Centre-IUCN. Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.

DPI. 2001. Review of the Queensland Shark Control Program, Consultation Draft. Queensland Fisheries Service, Department of Primary Industries. Brisbane, Queensland.

DSEWPaC. 2012a. Marine bioregional plan for the North-west Marine Region. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities . Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, Australia.

DSEWPaC. 2012b. Marine bioregional plan for the North Marine Region. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, Australia.

DSEWPaC. 2012c. Marine bioregional plan for the Temperate East Marine Region. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, Australia.

Duke, N.C., Kovacs, J.M., Griffiths, A.D., Preece, L., Hill, D.J., Van Oosterzee, P., Mackenzie, J., Morning, H.S., and Burrows, D. 2017. Large-scale dieback of mangroves in Australia’s Gulf of Carpentaria: a severe ecosystem response, coincidental with an unusually extreme weather event. Marine and Freshwater Research DOI: 10.1071/MF16322.

Fahrig, L. 1997. Relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population extinction. Journal of Wildlife Management 61(3): 603-610.

Francey, M., Fletcher, T., Deletic, A. and Duncan, H. 2010. New Insights into the Quality of Urban Storm Water in South Eastern Australia. Journal of Environmental Engineering 136: 381-390.

Furnas M. 2003. Catchments and Corals: Terrestrial Runoff to the Great Barrier Reef. Australian Institute of Marine Science and CRC Reef Research Centre, Townsville.

Fury, C. A., and Harrison, P. L. 2011. Impact of flood events on dolphin occupancy patterns. Marine Mammal Science 27: E185-E205.

Grech, A., Bos, M., Brodie, J., Coles, R., Dale, A., Gilbert, R., Hamann, M., Marsh, H., Neil, K., Pressey, R.L. and Rasheed, M.A. 2013. Guiding principles for the improved governance of port and shipping impacts in the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin 75: 8-20.

Grech, A., Pressey, R.L. and Day, J.C. 2015. Coal, Cumulative Impacts, and the Great Barrier Reef. Conservation Letters 9(3): 200-207.

Gribble, N. A., Mcpherson, G. and Lane, B. 1998. Effect of the Queensland Shark Control Program on non target species: whale, dugong, turtle and dolphin: a review. Marine and Freshwater Research 49: 645-651.

Hale, P. 1997. Conservation of inshore dolphins in Australia. Asian Marine Biology 14: 83-92.

Halpern, B.S., McLeod, K.L., Rosenberg, A.A. and Crowder, L.B. 2008. Managing for cumulative impacts in ecosystem-based management through ocean zoning. Ocean & Coastal Management 51: 203-211.

Heinsohn, G.E. 1979. Biology of small cetaceans in north Queensland waters. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, Australia.

Hobday, A.J. and Lough, J.M. 2011. Projected climate change in Australian marine and freshwater environments. Marine and Freshwater Research 62: 1000-1014.

Holyoake, C., Finn, H., Stephens, N., Duignan, P., Salgado, C., Smith, H., Bejder, L., Linke, T., Daniel, C., Moiler, K., Nam, L.H., Ham, G.S., Allen, S., Bryant, K., and McElligott, D. 2009. Technical Report on the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) Unusual Mortality Event within the Swan Canning Riverpark. Murdoch University.

Huang, S.L., Karczmarski, L., Chen, J., Zhou, R., Zhang, H., Li, H.-Y. and Wu, Y. 2012. Demography and population trends of the largest population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Biological Conservation 147: 234-242.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).

Jefferson, T.A. 2000. Population biology of the Indo-Pacific Hump-backed Dolphin in Hong Kong waters. Wildlife Monographs 144: 1–65.

Jefferson, T.A., Hung, S.K., Würsig, B. 2009. Protecting small cetaceans from coastal development: Impact assessment and mitigation experience in Hong Kong. Marine Policy 33: 305-311.

Jensen, F.H., Bejder, L., Wahlberg, M., Soto, N.A., Johnson, M. and Madsen, P.T. 2009. Vessel noise effects on delphinid communication. Marine Ecology Progress Series 395: 161-175.

Keyghobadi, N. 2007. The genetic implications of habitat fragmentation for animals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 85: 1049-1064.

Lawler, I., Parra, G.J., and Noad, M. 2007. Chapter 16 Vulnerability of marine mammals in the Great Barrier Reef to climate change. In: Johnson JE, Marshall PA (ed.), Climate change and the Great Barrier Reef: a vulnerability assessment, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authorithy and Australian Greenhouse Office, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.

Lotze, H. K.; Worm, B. 2009. Historical baselines for large marine animals. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24(5): 254-262.

Lovelock, C.E., Feller, I.C., Reef, R., Hickey, S., and Ball, M.C. 2017. Mangrove dieback during fluctuating sea levels. Scientific Reports 7: 1680.

Meager, J.J. and Limpus, C. 2014. Mortality of Inshore Marine Mammals in Eastern Australia Is Predicted by Freshwater Discharge and Air Temperature. PLoSONE 9(e94849).

Meager, J.J., Winter, K.M., Biddle, T.M. and Limpus, C.J. 2012. Marine wildlife stranding and mortality database annual report 2008-2011. II. Cetacean and Pinniped. Conservation Technical and Data Report 2012. 2: 1-76.

Mei, Z., Huang, S., Hao, Y., Turvey, S., Gong, W. and Wang, D. 2012. Accelerating population decline of Yangtze finless porpoise, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis. Biological Conservation 153: 192-200.

Moore J. 2015. Intrinsic growth (rmax) and generation time (T) estimates for odontocetes of the genus Sousa, Orcaella, and Neophocaena, in support of IUCN Red List Assessments. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS SWFSC.

Palmer, C., Brooks, L., Parra, G.J., Rogers, T., Glasgow, D. and Woinarski, J.C. 2014a. Estimates of abundance and apparent survival of coastal dolphins in Port Essington harbour, Northern Territory, Australia. Wildlife Research 41: 35-45.

Palmer, C., Murphy, S. A., Thiele, D., Parra, G. J., Robertson, K. M., Beasley, I., and Austin, C. M. 2011. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA clarifies the taxonomy and distribution of the Australian snubfin dolphin (Orcaella heinsohni) in northern Australian waters. Marine and Freshwater Research 62: 1303-1307.

Palmer, C., Parra, G.J., Rogers, T. and Woinarski, J. 2014b. Collation and review of sightings and distribution of three coastal dolphin species in waters of the Northern Territory, Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 20: 116-125.

Parra, G.J. 2006. Resource partitioning in sympatric delphinids: Space use and habitat preferences of Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Journal of Animal Ecology 75: 862-874.

Parra, G.J., and Cagnazzi, D. 2017. Australian Snubfin dolphins Orcaella heinsohni: a review of current knowledge and conservation status. Paper SC/67a/SM21 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, May 2017, Bled, Slovenia (unpublished).

Parra, G.J., and Jedensjö, M. 2009. Feeding habits of Australian Snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis). Project Report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Townvsille and Reef & Rainforest Research Centre Limited, Cairns.

Parra, G.J., Azuma, C., Preen, A. R., Corkeron, P. J. and Marsh, H. 2002. Distribution of Irrawaddy dolphins, Orcaella brevirostris, in Australian waters. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement 10: 141-154.

Parra, G.J., Corkeron, P.J. and Marsh, H. 2004. The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765), in Australian waters: A summary of current knowledge. Aquatic Mammals 30(1): 197-206.

Parra, G.J., Corkeron, P.J. and Marsh, H. 2006. Population sizes, site fidelity and residence patterns of Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins: Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 129: 167-180.

Parra, G.J., Schick, R. and Corkeron, P.J. 2006b. Spatial distribution and environmental correlates of Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Ecography 29: 396-406.

Paterson, R. A. 1990. Effects of long-term anti-shark measures on target and non-target species in Queensland, Australia. Biological Conservation 52: 147-159.

Paterson, R. A., Van Dyck S.M., Gynther I.C. 1998. Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella brevirostris (Owen in Gray) from southern Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 42: 554.

Pirotta, E., Laesser, B.E., Hardaker, A., Riddoch, N., Marcoux, M. and Lusseau, D. 2013. Dredging displaces bottlenose dolphins from an urbanised foraging patch. Marine Pollution Bulletin 74: 396-402.

Ports Australia. 2014. Dredging and Australian Ports: Subtropical and Tropical Ports. Report repared for Ports Australia by RMC Pty Ltd with support from Sprott Planning and Environment Pty Ltd..

Queensland Government. 2012. Great Barrier Reef Port Strategies 2011-2012. Department of State Development, Infrastructure and Planning. www.dsdip.qld.gov.au/resources/plan/great-barrier-reef-ports-strategies.pdf.

Rako N., Fortuna C.M., Holcer D., Mackelworth P., Nimak-Wood M., Pleslić G., Sebastianutto L., Vilibić I., Wiemann A., Picciulin M. 2013. Leisure boating noise as a trigger for the displacement of the bottlenose dolphins of the Cres–Lošinj archipelago (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Marine Pollution Bulletin 69(1): 77-84.

Read A.J. 2008. The Looming Crisis: Interactions between Marine Mammals and Fisheries. Journal of Mammalogy 89: 541-548.

Read, A.J., Drinker, P. and Northridge, S. 2006. Bycatch of marine mammals in US and global fisheries. Conservation Biology 20: 163–169.

Rice, D.W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence, Kansas.

Schaffelke, B., Carleton, J., Skuza, M., Zagorskis, I. and Furnas, M.J. 2012. Water quality in the inshore Great Barrier Reef lagoon: Implications for long-term monitoring and management. Marine Pollution Bulletin 65: 249-260.

Smith, R., Middlebrook, R., Turner, R., Huggins, R., Vardy, S. and Warne, M. 2012. Large-scale pesticide monitoring across Great Barrier Reef catchments – Paddock to Reef Integrated Monitoring, Modelling and Reporting Program. Marine Pollution Bulletin 65: 117-127.

Todd, V.L., Todd, I.B., Gardiner, J.C., Morrin, E.C., MacPherson, N.A., DiMarzio, N.A. and Thomsen, F. 2015. A review of impacts of marine dredging activities on marine mammals. ICES Journal of Marine Science 72: 328-340.

Venter, O., Brodeur, N.N., Nemiroff, L., Belland, B., Dolinsek, I.J. and Grant, J.W. 2006. Threats to endangered species in Canada. Bioscience 56: 903-910.

Woinarski, J.C.Z., Burbidge, A.A. and Harrison, P.L. 2014. The Action Plan for Australian Mammals 2012. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

Citation: Parra, G., Cagnazzi, D. & Beasley, I. 2017. Orcaella heinsohni. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T136315A50385982. . Downloaded on 12 December 2017.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided