Platichthys flesus

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PLEURONECTIFORMES PLEURONECTIDAE

Scientific Name: Platichthys flesus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Baltic Flounder, Butt, European Flounder, Fluke, Mud Flounder, River Flounder, White Fluke
French Flet, Flet d'Europe
Spanish Platija, Platija Europea, Platixa, Solla
Synonym(s):
Flesus vulgaris Moreau, 1881
Flesus vulgaris Moreau, 1881
Platessa carnaria Brown, 1830
Platessa carnaria Brown, 1830
Platessa glabra Rathke, 1837
Platessa glabra Rathke, 1837
Platichthys flesus bogdanovi (Sandeberg, 1878)
Platichthys flesus bogdanovi (Sandeberg, 1878)
Platichthys flesus flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Platichthys flesus flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Platichthys flesus luscus (Pallas, 1814)
Platichthys flesus luscus (Pallas, 1814)
Platichthys flesus marmorata Nordmann, 1840
Platichthys flesus marmorata Nordmann, 1840
Platichthys flesus trachurus (Duncker, 1892)
Platichthys flesus trachurus (Duncker, 1892)
Pleuronectes bogdanovii Sandeberg, 1878
Pleuronectes bogdanovii Sandeberg, 1878
Pleuronectes flesoides Pontoppidan, 1766
Pleuronectes flesoides Pontoppidan, 1766
Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus, 1758
Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus, 1758
Pleuronectes flesus baltica Suvorov, 1925
Pleuronectes flesus baltica Suvorov, 1925
Pleuronectes flesus caninensis Suvorov, 1929
Pleuronectes flesus caninensis Suvorov, 1929
Pleuronectes flesus leiurus Duncker, 1892
Pleuronectes flesus leiurus Duncker, 1892
Pleuronectes flesus luscus Pallas, 1814
Pleuronectes flesus luscus Pallas, 1814
Pleuronectes flesus septentrionalis Berg, 1949
Pleuronectes flesus septentrionalis Surorov, 1925
Pleuronectes flesus septentrionalis Surorov, 1925
Pleuronectes flesus septentrionalis Berg, 1949
Pleuronectes flesus trachurus Duncker, 1892
Pleuronectes flesus trachurus Duncker, 1892
Pleuronectes italicus Günther, 1862
Pleuronectes italicus Günther, 1862
Pleuronectes luscus Pallas, 1814
Pleuronectes luscus Pallas, 1814
Pleuronectes passer Linnaeus, 1758
Pleuronectes passer Linnaeus, 1758
Pleuronectes roseus Shaw, 1796
Pleuronectes roseus Shaw, 1796

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-02-04
Assessor(s): Munroe, T.A.
Reviewer(s): Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.
Justification:
Platichthys flesus has been assessed as Least Concern. This species has a broad geographic range in which it is reported as common. Despite some signficant threats, harvesting and chemical pollution, these are not thought to pose a signficant threat to the global population at this time. However it is recommended that systematic monitoring is undertaken to determine stock status across the entire range.
History:
2008 Least Concern (IUCN 2008)
2008 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This natural range of Platichthys flesus extends from the White Sea to the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Due to accidental introductions in ballast water, it may also be found around North America.
Countries:
Native:
Albania; Algeria; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Denmark; Egypt; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Lithuania; Malta; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Regionally extinct:
Czech Republic
Introduced:
Canada; Iran, Islamic Republic of; United States
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Introduced:
Arctic Sea; Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – northeast; Mediterranean and Black Sea
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Platichthys flesus is common throughout its range.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Platichthys flesus is common around the British Isles, where it is typically found resting on the muddy substrate of estuaries. It has been found at a depth range of 1-100 m. It migrates into the open sea to breed from March to June, during which time it can migrate up to 300 km offshore, although it will more often migrate just 30 km. The larvae feed on copepods and diatoms and gradually shift to a diet of mysids, decapods, crustaceans, polychaetes, and bivalves. The young then return to estuarine waters, where they live on the bottom until they are ready to migrate and spawn.
Systems: Freshwater; Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is commericially harvested across most of its range, and utilised as a human food source.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Due to the close association of Platichthys flesus with estuarine waters and the benthic invertebrate fauna within these habitats, it has been impacted by chemical pollution within these sediments. In particular, xenoestrogens, which occur in domestic, industrial and agricultural waste, have been noted to have a negative effect on this species, causing the occurrence of intersex specimens. Intersex individuals are caught in low, but constant amounts (Lye et al. 1998). The effects of xenoestrogen are markedly lower further from the shore (Vethaak et al. 2005).

In addition, this is a commercially important food fish, with some of the most important fisheries existing in Baltic and Danish waters. The total landings for 1999 were 11,879 t, with Denmark and the Netherlands contributing the greatest landings of 3,528 t and 3,159 t respectively.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known species-specific conservation measures in place for Platichthys flesus. However, it may occur in a number of marine protected areas, affording it some protection from harvesting and high loadings of chemical waste.

It is recommended that systematic monitoring is undertaken to determine stock status across the entire range.

Bibliography [top]

Alegre, M., Lleonart, J. and Veny, J. 1992. Espècies pesqueres d'interès comercial. Nomenclatura oficial catalana. Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament de Cultura, DARP (Departament d'Agricultura, Alimentació i Acció Rural), TERMCAT (El Centre de Terminologia), Barcelona, Spain.

Allardi, J. and Keith, P. 1991. Atlas préliminaire des poissons d'eau douce de France. College Patrimoines Naturels, Paris.

Amlacher, E. 1981. Taschenbuch der Fischkrankheiten. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.

Baensch, H.A. and Riehl, R. 1997. Aquarien Atlas, Band 5. Mergus Verlag, Melle, Germany.

Balon, E.K. 1990. Epigenesis of an epigeneticist: the development of some alternative concepts on the early ontogeny and evolution of fishes. Guelph ichthyology reviews 1: 1-48.

Bauchot, M.-L. 1987. Poissons osseux. In: W. Fischer, M.-L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds), Fiches FAO d'identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. (Révision 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de Pêche 37, pp. 891-1421. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

Berg, L.S. 1958. System der rezenten und fossilen Fischartigen und Fische. VEB Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin.

Berg, L.S. 1965. Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd, Jerusalem.

Bertolini, F., D'Ancona, U., Padoa Montalenti, E., Ranzi, S., Sanzo, L., Sparta, A., Tortonese, E. and Vialli, M. 1956. Uova, larve e stadi giovanili di Teleostei. Fauna Flora Golfo Napoli Monograph.

Billard, R. 1997. Les poissons d'eau douce des rivières de France. Identification, inventaire et répartition des 83 espèces. Delachaux & Niestlé, Lausanne.

Blanc, M., Gaudet, J.L., Banarescu, P. and Hureau, J.C. 1971. European inland water fish: a multilingual catalogue. Fishing News Ltd, London.

Bogutskaya, N. 2002. Common names of Russian freshwater fishes. Spreadsheet.

Bogutskaya, N.G. and Naseka, A.M. 2002. An overview of nonindigenous fishes in inland waters of Russia. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute of Russia Academy of Science 296: 21-30.

Bruce, J.R., Colman, J.S. and Jones, N.S. 1963. Marine fauna of the Isle of Man. Marine Biological Committee, Memoir No. 36. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool.

Bundesanstalt für Landwirtschaft und Ernährung. 2003. Verzeichnis der Handelsbezeichnungen für Erzeugnisse der Fischerei und der Aquakultur. Available at: http://www.ble.de/index.cfm?8C712107D9244972B3C193AC1917DCE7#Handelsbezeichnungen. (Accessed: 17 June 2003).

Carpenter, K. 1994. List of FAO names in the yearbook found inconsistent with FIRM's Species Identification and Data Programme publications and other primary sources. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Chibani, M., Glazewska, I. and Rokicki, J. 2004. The use of isozymes to identify specimens of Pomphorrhynchus (Acanthocephala) in flounder, Platichthys flesus from the Baltic Sea. Journal of the Marine Biology Association 84(1): 277-279.

Coad, B.W. 1995. Freshwater fishes of Iran. Acta Science Nature Academy of Science Borneo 29(1): 1-64.

Coad, B.W. 1995. Encyclopedia of Canadian fishes. Canadian Museum of Nature and Canadian Sportfishing Production Inc, Singapore.

Cooper, J.A. and Chapleau, F. 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fishery Bulletin 96(4): 686-726.

Costa, F. 1991. Atlante dei pesci dei mari italiani. Gruppo Ugo Mursia Editore S.p.A, Milano, Italy.

Costa, M.J. 1988. Écologie alimentaire des poissons de l'estuarie du Tage. Cybium 12(4): 301-320.

Coull, K.A., Jermyn, A.S., Newton, A.W., Henderson, G.I. and Hall, W.B. 1989. Length-weight relationships for 88 species of fish encountered in the North Atlantic. Scottish Fisheries Research Report (43).

Crespo, J., Gajate, J. and Ponce, R. 2001. Clasificación científica e identificación de nombres vernáculos existentes en la base de datos de seguimiento informático de recursos naturales oceánicos. Instituto Español de Oceanografia, Madrid, Spain.

Crossman, E.J. 1991. Introduced freshwater fishes: A review of the North American perspective with emphasis on Canada. Canadian Journal of Fish Aquatic Science 48(1): 46-57.

Deval, M.C. 2002. Common names of marine fishes of Turkey. Unpublished report.

Dolgov, A.V. 2000. New data on composition and distribution of the Barents Sea ichthyofauna. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES CM 2000) / Mini-Symposium (12) on Defining the Role of ICES in Supporting Biodiversity Conservation.

Dorel, D. 1986. Poissons de l'Atlantique nord-est relations taille-poids. Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer, Nantes.

Duthie, G.G. 1982. The respiratory metabolism of temperature-adapted flatfish at rest and during swimming activity and the use of anaerobic metabolism at moderate swimming speeds. Journal of Experimental Biology 97: 359-373.

Dziurdzik, B. 1963. The respiratory surfaces of teleosts. VI. Pleuronectes flesus luscus Pall. Acta Biological Cracov (Zoology) 6: 136-145.

Economidis, P.S. 1973. Catalogue of the fishes of Greece. Reprinted from Hellenic Oceanology and Limnology.

Economidis, P.S. 2001. Common names of Hellenic marine fishes. Unpublished Technical Report. Aristotle University.

Economidis, P.S. and Koutrakis, E. 2001. Common names of commercially important Hellenic marine organisms. Unpublished Technical Report. Aristotle University.

Eschmeyer, W.N. 1990. Catalog of the genera of recent fishes. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA.

Evseenko, S.A. 2004. Family Pleuronectidae Cuvier 1816. Righteye flounders. California Academy of Sciences.

FAO-FIDI. 1997. International Standard Statistical Classification of Aquatic Animals and Plants (ISSCAAP). November 1997. Fishery Information. Data and Statistics Service.

Fiedler, K. 1991. Lehrbuch der Speziellen Zoologie. Band II: Wirbeltiere. 2. Teil: Fische.In: D. Starck (ed.), pp. 498. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena.

Flintegård, H. 1987. Fishes in the North Sea Museum's aquaria. North Sea Museum, North Sea Centre.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1986. Fishery statistics - catches and landings. FAO, Rome.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1992. FAO yearbook. Fishery statistics: catches and landings. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations-Fisheries Global Information System. 2005. Species fact stheets: Platichthys flesus. 21/06/2005. Available at: http://www.fao.org/figis/servlet/species?fid=2550#http://www.fao.org/figis/servlet/species?fid=2550#.

Frimodt, C. 1995. Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial coldwater fish. Osney Mead, Oxford.

Froese, R. and Frieß, C.C. 1992. Synopsis of biological data on Platichthys flesus (L.), ICES assessment units 22 and 24, using the FISHBASE format. International Council for the Exploration of the Seas.

Froese, R. and Papasissi, C. 1990. The use of modern relational databases for identification of fish larvae. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 6: 37-45.

Gerstmeier, R. and Romig, T. 1998. Die Süßwasserfische Europas: für Naturfreunde und Angler. Franckh-Kosmos Verlag, Stuttgart.

Gibson, R.N. and Robb, L. 1996. Piscine predation on juvenile fishes on a Scottish sandy beach. Journal of Fish Biology 49: 120-138.

Halbeisen, H.-W. 1988. Bestimmungsschlüssel für Fischlarven der Nordsee und angrenzender Gebiete. Berichte aus dem Institut für Meereskunde, Kiel.

Hall, A.J., Watkins, J. and Hammond, P.S. 1998. Seasonal variation in the diet of harbour seals in the south-western North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 170: 269-281.

Hempel, G. and Nellen, W. 1974. Fische der Ostsee. Springer, Verlag.

Hertling, H. 1928. Untersuchungen über die Ernährung von Meeresfischen (Quantitative Nahrungsuntersuchungen an Pleuronektiden und eingewanderten Fischen der Ostsee). Ber. d. wiss. Kom. f, Meeresforsch.

Hesselio, M.P. 1675. Hertzfliessende Betrachtungen von dem Elbe-Strom. Eigenverlag Altona, Hamburg.

Hohendorf, K. 1966. Eine Diskussion der von Bertalanffy Funktionen und ihre Anwendung zur Charakterisierung des Wachstums von Fischen.: Kieler Meeres. 22:70-97.

Hughes, G.M. 1972. Distribution of oxygen tension in the blood and water along the secondary lamella of icefish gills. Journal of Experimental Biology 56: 481-492.

Hughes, G.M. and Morgan, M. 1973. The structure of fish gills in relation to their respiratory function. Biological Reviews 48: 419-475.

Hureau, J.C. 1991. La base de données GICIM: Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. In: Allardi, J. and Keith, P (eds), Atlas preliminaire des poissons d'eau douce de France, pp. 225-227. Museum D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Iacob, L. and Dima, I. 2006. Regnul Animalia. Enciclopedia Florei si Faunei din Romania, Eukarya.

International Game Fish Association. 2001. Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. International Game Fish Association, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).

Kändler, R. and Pirwitz, W. 1957. Über die Fruchbarkeit der Plattfishe im Nordsee-Ostsee Raum. Kiel Meeresforsch 13: 11-34.

Keith, P. and Allardi, J (coord.). 2001. Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de France. Patrimoines naturels, Paris.

Kerstens, A., Lomholt, J.P. and Johansen, K. 1979. The ventilation, extraction and uptake of oxygen in undisturbed flounders, Platichthys flesus: responses to hypoxia acclimation. Journal of Experimental Biology 83: 169-179.

Khlopnikov, M.M. 1992. Feeding of predatory fishes in the Vistula Lagoon of the Baltic Sea. Journal of Ichthyology 32(7): 152-159.

Klinkhardt, M. 1993. Zur Zytogenetik von Platichthys flesus und Limanda limanda (Pleuroectidae, Teleostei) und Karyoevolution der Pleuronectiformes. Zoologie Fischkunde.

Klinkhardt, M., Tesche, M. and Greven, H. 1995. Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.

Koli, L. 1990. Suomen kalat. [Fishes of Finland]. Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö, Helsinki.

Kottelat, M. 1997. European freshwater fishes. Biologia 52(5): 1-271.

Kullander, S.O. 1999. Swedish fishes: checklist of Swedish fishes. Swedish Museum of Natural History.

Laffaille, P., Feunteun, E. and Lefeuvre, J.C. 2000. Composition of fish communities in a European macrotidal salt marsh (the Mont Saint-Michel Bay, France). Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science 51(4): 429-438.

Lajus, D.L. 1992. Khromosomnye nabory 13 vidov ryb V+Belogo morja. - Problemy izuchenija ratsional'nogo ispol'sovanija okhrany prirodnykh resursov Belogo morja. Reg. Konf. Thes. Dokl.

Landbrugs -og Fiskeriministeriet. 1995. Fiskeriårbogen 1996. Årbog for den danske fiskerflåde. Fiskeriårbogens Forlag ved Iver C. Weilbach & Co, Toldbodgade.

Lever, C. 1996. Naturalized fishes of the world. Academic Press, California.

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordinus, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Impensis Direct, Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae.

Lusk, S. and Hanel, L. 2000. The Red List of lampreys and fishes in the Czech Republic - Version 2000. Biodiverzita ichtyofauny 3: 5-13.

Lüthen, K. 1989. Fischkrankheiten und Parasiten von Flunder, Scholle, Kliesche und Steinbutt aus den Küstengewässern der DDR. Hochschule Liselotte Hermann.

Luther, W. and Fiedler, K. 2002. Guida della fauna marina costiera del Mediterraneo. Atlante illustrato a colori. Franco Muzzio and Co., Rome.

Maitland, P.S. and Campbell, R.N. 1992. Freshwater fishes of the British Isles. HarperCollins Publishers, London.

McDowall, R.M. 1988. Diadromy in fishes: migrations between freshwater and marine environments. Croom Helm, London, UK.

Minchin, D. 1987. Fishes of the Lough Hyne marine reserve. Journal of Fish Biology 31: 343-352.

Möller, H. and Anders, K. 1983. Krankheiten und Parasiten der Meeresfische. Verlag Möller, Kiel.

Möller, H. and Anders, K. 1986. Diseases and parasites of marine fishes. Verlag Möller, Kiel.

Möller, H. and Anders, K. 1989. Krankheiten und Parasiten der Meeresfische, 100 Dias. Verlag H. Möller, Kiel.

Mouritsen, R. 2004. Fiskanøvn.

Muller, M. and Friess, C.C. 1996. An assessment of the flounder (Platichthys flesus) stock in ICES sub-division 24 and 25. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

Muus, B. and Dahlström, P. 1978. Die Meeresfische der Ostsee, der Nordsee, des Atlantiks. BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München, Deutschland.

Muus, B.J. and Dahlström, P. 1974. Collins guide to the sea fishes of Britain and North-Western Europe. Collins, London.

Muus, B.J. and Dahlstrøm, P. 1989. Havfisk og Fiskeri i Nordvesteuropa. GEC Gads Forlag, København, Danmark.

Muus, B.J. and Dahlstrøm, P. 1990. Europas ferskvandsfisk. GEC Gads Forlag, København.

Muus, B.J. and Nielsen, J.G. 1999. Sea fish. Scandinavian Fishing Year Book, Hedehusene, Denmark.

Muus, B.J. and P. Dahlström. 1968. Süßwasserfische..

Nijssen, H. and de Groot, S.J. 1974. Catalogue of fish species of the Netherlands. Beaufortia 21(285): 173-207.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 1984. Multilingual dictionary of fish and fish products. Fishing News Books Limited, Farnham, Surrey, England.

Pauly, D. 1980. On the interrelationships between natural mortality, growth parameters, and mean environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 39(2): 175-192.

Plikss, M. 2002. Fish of Latvia. Available at: http://latvijas.daba.lv/scripts/db/saraksti/saraksti.cgi?d=zivis&l=en.

Quignard, J.P. and Tomasini, J.A. 2000. Mediterranean fish biodiversity. Biological Marine Mediterranean 7(3): 1-66.

Randolph, S. and Snyder, M. 1993. The seafood list: FDA's guide to acceptable market names for seafood sold in interstate commerce. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, USA.

Reshetnikov, Y.S., Bogutskaya, N.G., Vasil'eva, E.D., Dorofeeva, E.A., Naseka, A.M., Popova, O.A., Savvaitova, K.A., Sideleva, V.G. and Sokolov, L.I. 1997. An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. Journal of Ichthyology 37(9): 687-736.

Riede, K. 2004. Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales.

Roberts, R.J. (ed.). 1978. Fish pathology. Cassell Ltd., London.

Robins, C.R., Bailey, R.M., Bond, C.E., Brooker, J.R., Lachner, E.A., Lea, R.N. and Scott, W.B. 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication.

Rochard, E. and Elie, P. 1994. La macrofaune aquatique de l'estuaire de la Gironde. Contribution au livre blanc de l'Agence de l'Eau Adour Garonne. In: J.-L. Mauvais and J.-F. Guillaud (eds), État des connaissances sur l'estuaire de la Gironde. Agence de l'Eau Adour-Garonne, pp. 1-56. Éditions Bergeret, Bordeaux, France.

Russell, F.S. 1976. The eggs and planktonic stages of British marine fishes. Academic Press, London.

Saeger, J. 1974. Der Befischungszustand der Flunderpopulation in der Kieler Bucht. Kiel University.

Sanches, J.G. 1989. Nomenclatura Portuguesa de organismos aquáticos (proposta para normalizaçao estatística). Publicaçoes avulsas do Instituto das Pescas da Investigação e do Mar (IPIMAR).

Scabell, J. 1988. Der Ruegensche Frühjahrshering - das Laichgeschehen. Universität Rostock.

Schäperclaus, W. 1979. Fischkrankheiten, vols. 1 and 2. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin.

Smolian, K. 1920. Merkbuch der Binnenfischerei. Fischereiförderung GmbH, Berlin.

Soljan, T. 1975. I pesci dell'Adriatico. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Verona, Italy.

Sparholt, H. 1990. An estimate of the total biomass of fish in the North Sea. Journal of Conservation 46: 200-210.

Spratte, S. and Hartmann, U. 1997. Fischartenkataster: Süßwasserfische und Neunaugen in Schleswig-Holstein. Ministerium für ländliche Räume, Landwirtschaft, Ernährung und Tourismus, Kiel.

Steen, J.B. and Berg, T. 1966. The gills of two species of haemoglobin-free fishes compared to those of other teleosts, with a note on severe anemia in the eel. Compilation of Biochemistry and Physiology 18: 517-526.

Steffensen, J.F., Lomholt, J.P. and Johansen, K. 1982. Gill ventilation and O2 extraction during graded hypoxia in two ecologically distinct species of flatfish, the flounder (Platichthys flesus) and the plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Environmental Biology of Fish 7(2): 157-163.

Stresemann, E. 1974. Exkursionsfauna für die Gebiete der DDR und der BRD. Band 3, Wirbeltiere. Volk und Wissen, Berlin.

Swedish Museum of Natural History. 1999. NRM Ichthyology collection database. Ichthyology Section, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History.

Thiel, R., Cabral, H. and Costa, M.J. 2003. Composition, temporal changes and ecological guild classification of the ichthyofaunas of large European estuaries - a comparison between the Tagus (Portugal) and the Elbe (Germany). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 19(5): 330-342.

Thiel, R., Mehner, T., Köpcke, B. and Kafemann, R. 1996. Diet niche relationship among early life stages of fish in German estuaries. Marine and Freshwater Research 47: 123-136.

Thorman, S. and Wiederholm, A.-M. 1983. Seasonal occurrence and food resource use of an assemblage of nearshore fish species in the Bothnian Sea, Sweden. Marine Ecological Progress Service 10: 223-229.

Thurston, R.V. and Gehrke, P.C. 1993. Respiratory oxygen requirements of fishes: description of OXYREF, a data file based on test results reported in the published literature. In: R.C. Russo and R.V. Thurston (eds), Fish physiology, toxicology, and water quality management. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Sacramento, California, USA.

Tiffert, K. 1986. Fischereiliche und wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Sportangelei in der Kieler Bucht. Diplomarbeit, Institut für Meereskunde, Christian-Albrecht Universität.

Try, I. 2000. Mollusc species in the diets of dab (Limanda limanda), flounder (Platichthys flesus) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in Aarhus Bay, Denmark. Special Publication Phuket Marine Biological Centre 21(2): 39-46.

Varagnolo, S. 1964. Calendario di comparse di uova pelagiche die teleostei marini nel plancton di Chioggia. Archive Oceanographic limnological 13(2): 249-279.

Veer, H.W. van der and Zijlstra, J.J. 1982. Predation of flatfish larvae by Pleurobrachia pileus in coastal waters. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 16: 1.

Vianet, R. 1985. Le flet du Golfe du Lion, Platichthys flesus Linne 1758. Systématique-Ecobiologie-Pêche.

Vianet, R., Quignard, J.-P. and Tomasini, J.-A. 1989. Age et croissance de quatre poissons Pleuronectiformes (flet, turbot, barbue, sole) du golfe du Lion. Cybium 13(3): 247-258.

Welcomme, R.L. 1988. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Went, A.E.J. 1957. List of Irish fishes. Department of Lands, Fisheries Division, Dublin.

Winkler, H.M., Skora, K., Repecka, R., Ploks, M., Neelov, A., Urho, L., Gushin, A. and Jespersen, H. 2000. Checklist and status of fish species in the Baltic Sea. ICES Committee Meetings Documents, CM 2000/Mini-Symposium on Defining the Role of ICES in Supporting Biodiversity Conservation (11).

Wu, H.L., Shao, K.T. and Lai, C.F. 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.


Citation: Munroe, T.A. 2010. Platichthys flesus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 October 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided