Sinocyclocheilus grahami 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae

Scientific Name: Sinocyclocheilus grahami
Species Authority: (Regan, 1904)
Common Name(s):
English Golden Line Fish
Synonym(s):
Barbus grahami Regan, 1904
Percocypris grahami Wu, 1963
Sinocyclocheilus grahami Wu, 1977
Taxonomic Notes: Originally Barbus grahami, but changed in 1963 to Percocypris grahami by Wu, and in 1977 to Sinocyclocheilus grahami

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2ce ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Chen, X.-Y. & Yang, J.-X.
Reviewer(s): Kullander, F. (Freshwater Fish Red List Authority) & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Assessment Unit)
Justification:
Sinocyclocheilus grahami is endemic to Lake Dianchi (surface area 292.6 km²), Yunnan Province, China. It used to be a very common and important commercial fishery species, but it has undergone a massive population decline from around the mid 1960s and totally disappeared from the lake body in the 1990s. The species was very common and supported a high harvest in the lake before the 1960s; it is now suspected that the population has declined by at least 80% over the past three generations (since 1992; estimated generation length is five years). Scientific surveys, carried out since 1999, have found it only existing in some tributaries and springs. There are four subpopulations known which are separated (severely fragmented) from each other by the polluted lake body. Major threats to the species are introduced species, overfishing and pollution from agriculture and domestic sources which have led to high levels of nutrients and eutrophication in parts of the lake.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Endemic to Lake Dianchi its tributaries and springs. Now the species is extirpated from the lake itself, and is only known to survive in 20 temple spring ponds, and one lake tributary (Muyang/Lengshui) all within 36 km of the lake shore.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
China (Yunnan)
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:30
Number of Locations:4
Lower elevation limit (metres):1874
Upper elevation limit (metres):2220
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Known from about 20 temple spring ponds, and one lake tributary (Muyang/Lengshui) = four subpopulations. However the temple springs may be connected by small underground karst rivers. There are still a big portion of rivers and reserviors that has not been investigated, so the population size outside of the lake is impossible to estimate.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Clear water usually with indigenous macrophytes such as Ottelia acuminata or Hydrilla verticillata. When water quality in the lake was better it is believed it breeds only in the spring waters. Needs flowing water to breed, laying its eggs on hard substrates (sand to rocks, not mud or silt). Breeds from January to April.  In winter it appears to migrate into cave streams. Adults eat shrimp and small fish, and juveniles eat zooplankton. They like water temperature about 20°C.
Systems:Freshwater
Generation Length (years):5
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Its loss from the lake is likely due to introduced fish species, declining water quality, loss of macrophytes (in part due to grass carp), over-fishing, and also breeding sites lost due to siltation and blocked access.

Current threats to the springs are introduced species (especially rainbow trout and red-eared slider turtle); also land use adjacent to springs and modification of spring structure.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No location in a formal protected area, but five of the springs ‘protected’ by Buddhist temples. It is Grade 2 National Protected Species.

The assessors have recommended six of the 20 monitoring spots to a  local government agency of Kunming City as key protected sites in Sep, 2007.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.18. Wetlands (inland) - Karst and Other Subterranean Hydrological Systems (inland)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.1. Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.3. Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.2. Invasive/problematic species control
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:No
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Whole (>90%) ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Whole (>90%) ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Trachemys scripta ssp. elegans)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Whole (>90%) ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.1. Nutrient loads
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.2. Soil erosion, sedimentation
♦ timing: Past, Likely to Return ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: No/Negligible Impact: 0 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.3. Herbicides and pesticides
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing: Future ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Chu, X.-L., Y.-R. Chen. 1989. The fishes of Yunnan, China. Part 1 Cyprinida. Science Press, Beijing.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Regan, C.T. 1904. On a collection of fishes made by Mr. John Graham at Yunnan Fu. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 13(75): 190-194.

Wu, H.-W. 1977. The cyprinid fishes of China. Volume 2. People's Press, Shanghai.


Citation: Chen, X.-Y. & Yang, J.-X. 2008. Sinocyclocheilus grahami. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T135152A4068202. . Downloaded on 25 June 2016.
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