Macaca hecki


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Macaca hecki
Species Authority: (Matschie, 1901)
Common Name(s):
English Heck's Macaque
Macaca tonkeana subspecies hecki (Matschie 1901)
Taxonomic Notes: This species hybridizes with M. tonkeana and possibly with M. nigrescens in areas where their ranges overlap. These hybrid zones, however, appear to be disappearing owing to human encroachment (M. Richardson pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A3cd+4cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Supriatna, J. & Shekelle, M.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
This species is listed as Vulnerable due to its continuing decline and future population declines estimated be > 30% over the next 40 years (i.e., three generations), as estimated by current rates of habitat conversion and increasing human population densities.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is restricted to northwestern Sulawesi, Indonesia, from the base of the northern peninsula (Isthmus of Palu) northeast to just east of Gorontalo (Groves 2001).
Indonesia (Sulawesi)
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Very little is known of the populations of this species. Densities are estimated to be 20-50 individuals/km2, with group sizes of approximately 10-20 (Supriatna and Hendras 2000). Density is 6.0 individuals/km2 in forest areas (WCS unpubl. data).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Very little is known of the habitat and ecology of this species (this is one of the least studied of the Sulawesi macaques). It is presumably diurnal and frugivorous, semi-arboreal and occurs in primary and secondary tropical rainforest.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The greatest threat to the species is loss of habitat, which is increasingly fragmented. Additionally, the species is captured, poisoned, shot and persecuted by local farmers who consider the animals crop raiders.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under CITES Appendix II. It is known to occur in at least 6 protected areas: Dolangan Reserve, Mas Popaya Raja Reserve, Panua Reserve, Pangi Binanga Reserve, Pinjam/Tanjung Mantop Reserve, Tangale Reserve (M. Richardson pers. comm.). There is a need to expand existing protected areas. There are no specimens reported in captivity.

Bibliography [top]

Bynum, E. 1995. Hybridization between Macaca tonkeana and Macaca hecki in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ph. D. Thesis, Yale.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Supriatna, J. and Hendras, E. 2000. Paduan Lapangan - Primata Indonesia. Jayasan Obor Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Watanabe, K. and Matsumura, S. 1991. The borderlands and possible hybrids between three species of macaques, M. nigra, M. nigriscens, and M. hecki, in the northern peninsula of Sulawesi. Primates 32(3): 365-369.

Watanabe, K., Lapasere, H. and Tantu, R. 1991. External characteristics and associated developmental changes in two species of Sulawesi macaques, Macaca tonkeana and M. hecki, with special reference to hybrids and the borderland between the species. Primates 32(1): 61-76.

Citation: Supriatna, J. & Shekelle, M. 2008. Macaca hecki. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 28 August 2015.
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