Hyemoschus aquaticus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Tragulidae

Scientific Name: Hyemoschus aquaticus
Species Authority: (Ogilby, 1841)
Common Name(s):
English Water Chevrotain
French Chevrotain Aquatique
Spanish Antilope Amizclero Enano De Agua

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Mallon, D.P. (Antelope Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment)
Listed as least Concern as the total population is estimated at some 280,000 animals. Although declining due to bushmeat hunting and habitat loss, this rate is not believed to be sufficient to warrant the listing of the species in a threatened category. However, if present trends continue, then the Water chevrotain’s status is likely to decline within the next few decades.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Data Deficient (DD)
1996 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Endemic to West and Central Africa, ranging across the forest belt from Sierra Leone and south-eastern Guinea, through Liberia, southern Côte d’Ivoire into south-west Ghana. Then ranges in southern Nigeria, east of the Niger River, through the central forest block, across southern Cameroon, Gabon, Cabinda (Angola), Congo and DR Congo to extreme western Uganda, where now believed extirpated (East 1999; Hart in press). A record from Angola's Lunda Norte Province, near the Cassai River, is the southernmost record of the species from the continent (Crawford-Cabral and Veríssimo 2005).
Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola); Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Ghana; Guinea; Liberia; Nigeria; Sierra Leone
Regionally extinct:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In the Ituri Forest, densities of 1.5-5.0/km²have been recorded (Hart in press). Higher densities (28/km²) have been reported in Gabon (Dubost 1978). East (1999) estimated the total population size at around 278,000 animals, with populations generally in decline.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Chevrotains are confined to closed-canopy, moist tropical lowland forest, and within this habitat, they only occupy areas in the vicinity of streams and rivers. However, the Water Chevrotain is not a swamp specialist, and often ranges in mature upland forest areas (Hart in press).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats to this species are habitat loss and bushmeat hunting. In the central Ituri Forest, chevrotains are regularly caught by the Mbuti net hunters, and consistently represent about five percent of total catch, even in areas that have been hunted for years (Hart in press).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Water Chevrotains occur in several protected areas, including: Sapo N. P. and Grebo National Forest (Liberia), Tai N. P. (Côte d’Ivoire), Lobeke N. P. (Cameroon), Lope N. P. and Minkebe N.P. (Gabon), Maiko N.P. Kahuzi-Biega N.P. and Okapi Faunal Reserve (DR Congo) and Odzala and Nouabale-Ndoki (Congo Republic) (East 1999).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Crawford-Cabral, J. and Verissimo, L. N. 2005. The Ungulate Fauna of Angola. Instituto de Investifacao Cientifica Tropical, Lisboa.

Dubost, G. 1978. Un aperçu sur l’écologie du Chevrotain africain, Hyemoschus aquaticus Ogilby, Artiodactyle Tragulidé. Mammalia 42: 1-62.

East, R. 1999. African Antelope Database 1999. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Hart, J. A. 2013. Hyemoschus aquaticus. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2008. Hyemoschus aquaticus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T10341A3195464. . Downloaded on 28 June 2016.
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