Parahyaena brunnea


Bibliography [top]

Ansell, W.F.H. and Dowsett, R.J. 1988. Mammals of Malawi - an Annotated Checklist and Atlas. The Trendrine Press, Zennor, St Ives, Cornwall, UK.

Boast, L.K. and Houser, A. 2012. Density of large predators on commercial farmland in Ghanzi, Botswana. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 42(2): 138-143.

Hanssen, L. and Stander, P. 2004. Namibia Large Carnivore Atlas. Predator Conservation Trust, Namibia.

Hayward, M.W., Adendorff, J., O'Brien, J., Sholto-Douglas, A., Bissett, C., Moolman, L.C., Bean, P., Fogarty, A., Howarth, D., Slater, R. and Kerley, G.I.H. 2007. The reintroduction of large carnivores to the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: an assessment. . Oryx 41: 205-214.

Hofer, H. and Mills, M.G.L. 1998a. Worldwide distribution of Hyaenas. In: M.G.L. Mills and H. Hofer (eds), Hyaenas. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 39-63. IUCN/SSC Hyaena Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Hofer, H. and Mills, M.G.L. 1998b. Population size, threats and conservation status of hyaenas. In: M.G.L. Mills and H. Hofer (eds), Hyaenas. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 64-79. IUCN/SSC Hyaena Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Hulsman, A., Dalerum, F., Swanepoel, L., Ganswindt, A., Sutherland, C. and Paris, M. 2010. Patterns of scat deposition by brown hyaenas Hyaena brunnea in a mountain savannah region of South Africa. Wildlife Biology 16(4): 445-451.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. Available at: (Accessed: 23 June 2015).

Jenks, S. and Werdelin, L. 1998. Taxonomy and systematics of living hyaenas (family Hyaenidae). In: M.G.L. Mills and H. Hofer (eds), Hyaenas: status survey and conservation action plan, pp. 8-17. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Kent, V. 2011. The status and conservation potential of carnivores in semi-arid rangelands, Botswana The Ghanzi Farmlands: a case study. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Durham University. Available at Durham E-University Theses Online:

Kent, V.T. and Hill, R.A. 2013. The importance of farmland for the conservation of the brown hyaena Parahyaena brunnea. Oryx 47(3): 431-440.

Koepfli, K., Jenks, S.M., Eizirik, E., Zahirpour, T., Van Valkenburgh, B. and Wayne, R.K. 2006. Molecular systematics of the Hyaenidae: Relationships of a relictual lineage resolved by a molecular supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38(3): 603–620.

Kuhn, B.F. 2014. A preliminary assessment of the carnivore community outside Johannesburg, South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 44(1): 95-98.

Lindsey, P.A., Havemann, C.P., Lines, R., Palazy, L., Price, A.E., Retief, T. A., Rhebergen, T. and van der Waal, C. 2013. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands. PLoS ONE 8(1).

Maude, G. and Mills, M.G.L. 2005. The comparative feeding ecology of the brown hyaena in a cattle area and a national park in Botswana. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 35(2): 201-214.

Mills, M.G.L. 1990. Kalahari hyaenas: the comparative behavioural ecology of two species. Unwin Hyman, London.

Mills, M.G L. 1998. Brown hyaena Hyaena (Parahyaena) brunnea (Thunberg, 1820). In: M.G.L. Mills and H. Hofer (eds), Hyaenas. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 26- 29. IUCN/SSC Hyaena Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Mills, M.G.L. 2013. Hyaena brunnea. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. Volume V: Carnivores, Pangolins, Equids and Rhinceroses, Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.

Schiess-Meier, M., Ramsauer, S., Gabanapelo, T. and Koenig, B. 2007. Livestock Predation - Insights From Problem Animal Control Registers in Botswana. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(4): 1267-1274.

Skinner, J D. 1976. Ecology of the brown hyaena Hyaena brunnea in the Transvaal with a distribution map for Southern Africa. South African Journal of Science 72: 262-269.

Slater, K. and Muller, K. 2014. The diet of brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea) in Shamwari Game Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Koedoe 56(1).

Stein, A.B., Fuller, T.K. and Marker, L.L. 2013. Brown hyaena feeding ecology on Namibian farmlands. South African Journal Of Wildlife Research 43(1): 27-32.

St John, F.A.V., Keane, A.M., Edwards-Jones, G., Jones , L., Yarnell, R.W. and Jones, J.P.G. 2011. Identifying indicators of illegal behaviour: carnivore killing in human-managed landscapes. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B-Biological Sciences 279(1729): 804-812.

Thorn, M. 2008. Preliminary results from a questionnaire survey regarding predators in the commercial landscapes of the North West Province of South Africa. University of Brighton.

Thorn, M., Green, M., Bateman, P.W., Waite, S. and Scott, D.M. 2011b. Brown hyaenas on roads: estimating carnivore occupancy and abundance using spatially auto-correlated sign survey replicates. Biological Conservation 144: 1799-1807.

Thorn, M., Green, M., Dalerum, F., Bateman, P.W. and Scott, D.M. 2012. What drives human-carnivore conflict in the North West Province of South Africa? Biological Conservation 150: 23-32.

Thorn, M., Green, M., Keith, M., Marnewick, K., Bateman, P.W., Cameron, E.Z. and Scott, D.M. 2011a. Large-scale distribution patterns of carnivores in northern South Africa: implications for conservation and monitoring. Oryx 45(4): 579-586.

Thorn, M., Green, M., Marnewick, K. and Scott, D.M. 2014. Determinants of attitudes to carnivores: implications for mitigating human-carnivore conflict on South African farmland. Oryx: DOI:

Thorn, M., Scott. D.M., Green, M., Bateman, P.W. and Cameron, E.Z. 2009. Estimating brown hyaena occupancy using baited camera traps. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 39(1): 1-10.

Wiesel, I. 2006. Predatory and foraging behaviour of brown hyenas (Parahyaena brunnea (Thunberg, 1820)) at Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus Schreber, 1776) colonies. Doctoral Thesis, University of Hamburg.

Wiesel, I. 2010. Killing of Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) pups by brown hyenas (Parahyaena brunnea) at mainland breeding colonies along the coastal Namib Desert. Acta Ethologica 13: 93-100.

Winterbach, C.W. and Winterbach, H.E.K. 2014. 2014 summary of brown hyaena population estimates in Botswana. Unpublished report.

Winterbach, H.E.K., Winterbach, C.W. and Somers, M.J. 2014. Landscape suitability in Botswana for the conservation of its six large African carnivores. PLoS ONE 9(6).

Wozencraft, W.C. 1993. Order Carnivora. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Second Edition, pp. 279-344. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Yarnell, R.W., Phipps, W.L., Burgess, L.P., Ellis, J.A., Harrison, S.W.R., Dell, S., MacTavish, D., MacTavish, L.M. and Scott, D.M. 2013. The influence of large predators on the feeding ecology of two African mesocarnivores: the black-backed jackal and the brown hyaena. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 43(2): 155-166.

Citation: Wiesel, I. 2015. Parahyaena brunnea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 30 June 2015.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided