Hippocampus erectus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Bibliography [top]

Barletta, M. and Correa, M.F.M. 1989. Chondrofauna do complexo estuarino da baía de Paranaguá e adjacências, PR – Brasil. Levantamento e produtividade pesqueira. In: Summaries of the IV Meeting of the Work group on Fishes and Research of Sharks and Rays in Brazil, Tamandaré. p: 23. (in Portuguese).

Baum, J.K. and Vincent, A.C.J. 2005. Magnitude and inferred impacts of the seahorse trade in Latin America. Environmental Conservation 32(4): 305-319.

Baum, J.K., Meeuwig, J.J. and Vincent, A.C.J. 2003. By-catch of lined seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) in a Gulf of Mexico shrimp trawl fishery. Fishery Bulletin 101(4): 721-731.

Boehm, J. T., Waldman, J., Robinson, J. D., and Hickerson, M. J. 2015. Population Genomics Reveals Seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) of the Western Mid-Atlantic Coast to Be Residents Rather than Vagrants. PLOS One 10(1): e0116219.

Boehm, J. T., Woodall, L., Teske, P. R., Lourie, S. A., Baldwin, C., Waldman, J., & Hickerson, M. 2013. Marine dispersal and barriers drive Atlantic seahorse diversification. Journal of Biogeography 40(10): 1839-1849.

Carpenter, K.E., Abrar, M., Aeby, G., Aronson, R.B., Banks, S., Bruckner, A., Chiriboga, A., Cortes, J., Delbeek, J.C., DeVaniter, L., Edgar, G.J., Edwards, A.J., Fenner, D., Guzman, H.M., Hoeksema, B.W., Hodgson, G., Johan, O., Licuanan, W.Y., Livingstone, S.R., Lovell, E.R., Moore, J.A., Obura, D.A., Ochavillo, D., Polidoro, B.A., Precht, W.F., Quibilan, M.C., Reboton, C., Richards, Z.T., Rogers, A.D., Sanciangco, J., Sheppard, A., Sheppard, C., Smith, J., Stuart, S., Turak, E., Veron, J.E.N., Wallace, C., Weil, E. and Wood, E. 2008. One-third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts. Science 321(5888): 560-563.

CITES. 2016. CITES Trade Data Base (Hippocampus erectus). Available at: (Accessed: 19-August-2015).

Dias, T.L., Rosa, I.L, and Baum, J.K. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 (Syngnathidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 65(3): 326.

Dunham, N. M. 2010. The Life History and Energy Budget of Hippocampus erectus in Tampa Bay, Florida. MSc. Thesis. College of Marine Science, University of South Florida.

El-Deir, A.C.A., Collier, C.A., Neto, M.S.D.A., Silva, K.M.D.S., Policarpo. I.D.S., Araujo, T.A.S., Alves, R.R.N., Albuquerque, U.P.D., and Moura, G.J.B.D. 2012. Ichthyofauna Used in TraditionalMedicine in Brazil. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012: 1-16.

Felicio, A.K.C., Rosa, I.L., Souto, A., and Freitas, R.H.A. 2006. Feeding behavior of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933. Japan Ethological Society and Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2006(24): 219-225.

Fish, M.P. and Mowbray, W. H. 1970. Family Syngnathidae 070: pipefishes and seahorses. In: Sounds of Western North Atlantic Fishes. Johns Hopkins Press: Baltimore. 205 pp.

Foster, S.J. and Vincent, A.C.J. 2004. Life history and ecology of seahorses: implications for conservation and management. Journal of Fish Biology 65: 1-61.

Foster, S.J. & Vincent, A.C.J. 2005. Enhancing Sustainability of the International Trade in Seahorses with a Single Minimum Size Limit. Conservation Biology 19: 1044-1050.

Foster, S. J., Wiswedel, S. and Vincent, A. C. J. 2016. Opportunities and challenges for analysis of wildlife trade using CITES data - Seahorses as a case study. Aquatic Conservation 26(1): 154-172.

Freret-Meurer, N. and Andreata, J. 2011. First record of Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 (Pisces, Syngnathidae, Actinopterygii) at 100 meters deep. Revista Brasileira de Zoociencias 13: 109-110.

Fritzsche, R. 2002. Syngnathidae. In: K.E. Carpenter (ed.), The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Atlantic, pp. 1221-1225. FAO, Rome.

Fritzsche, R.A. and Vincent A. 2002. Order Gasterosteiformes Syngnathidae.

Harborne, A. 2000. Fish and Coral Species Lists Compiled by Coral Cay Conservation: Belize 1990-1998. In: Harborne, A. (ed.). Coral Cay Conservation Ltd., London.

Hardy, J.D. 1978. Development of Fishes of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Three Volumes. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services.

Hare, J.A., Walsh, H.J., Maranick, K.E., Score, D., Sedberry, G.R., Parker Jr, R.O., and Mays, R.W. 2006. Fish fauna of Gray’s Reef National Marine Sanctuary and the implications for place-based management. .

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: (Accessed: 7 December 2017).

Jackson, J.B.C, Donovan, M.K., Cramer, K.L. and Lam, W. (editors). 2014. Status and Trends for Caribbean Coral Reefs: 1970-2012. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Kendrick, A.J. and Hyndes, G.A. 2005. Variations in the dietary compositions of morphologically diverse syngnathid fishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 72: 415-427.

Kitsos, M.S., Tzomos, T., Anagnostopoulou, L. and Koukouras, A. 2008. Diet composition of the seahorses, Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier, 1829 and Hippocampus hippocampus (Teleostei, Syngnathidae) in the Aegean Sea. Journal of Fish Biology 72(6): 1259-1267.

Koldewey, H. J. and Martin-smith, K. M. 2010. A global review of seahorse aquaculture. Aquaculture 302: 131-152.

Kuiter, R.H. 2009. Seahorses and Their Relatives. Aquatic Photographics, Seaford, Australia.

Lieske, E. and Myers, R.F. 1994. Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific and Caribbean including the Red Sea. Harper Collins Publishers, New York, USA.

Lin, Q., Lin, J., and Zhang, D. 2008. Breeding and juvenile culture of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810. Aquaculture 277(3-4): 287-292.

Lourie, S.A., Foster, S.J., Cooper, E.W.T. and Vincent, A.C.J. 2004. A Guide to the Identification of Seahorses. Project Seahorse and TRAFFIC North America, University of British Columbia and World Wildlife Fund, Washington D.C.

Lourie, S.A., Vincent, A.C.J. and Hall, H.J. 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London, U.K.

Masonjones, H.D., Rose, E., McRae, L.B., Dixson, D.L. 2010. An examination of the population dynamics of syngnathid fishes within Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Current Zoology 56(1): 118-133.

Monteiro-Neto, C., Cunha, F.E.A., Nottingham, M.C., Araújo, M.E., Rosa, I.L. and Barros, G.M.L. 2003. Analysis of the marine ornamental fish trade at Ceará State, northeast Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 1287-1295.

Monteiro-Neto, C., Ferreira, B.P., Rosa, I.L., Rocha, L.A., Araújo, M.E., Guimarãe, R.Z.P., Floeter, S.R. and Gasparini, J.L. 2000. The marine aquarium fisheries and trade in Brazil. A preliminary report submitted to IUCN. Fortaleza, Brazil.

Perante, N.C., Pajaro, M.G., Meeuwig, J.J. and Vincent, A.C.J. 2002. Biology of a seahorse species Hippocampus comes in the central Philippines. Journal of Fish Biology 60: 821-837.

Polidoro, B.A., Carpenter, K.E., Collins, L., Duke, N.C., Ellison, A.M., Ellison, J.C., Farnsworth, E.J., Fernando, E.S., Kathiresan, K., Koedam, N.E., Livingstone, S.R., Miyago, T., Moore, G.E., Ngoc Nam, V., Eong Ong, J., Primavera, J.H., Salmo, S.G., Sanciangco, J.C., Sukardjo, S., Wang, Y. and Hong Yong, J.W. 2010. The Loss of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk and Geographic Areas of Global Concern. Public Library of Science One 5(4): 10.

Rose, R., Masonjones, H., and Jones, A. 2016. A DNA-based assessment of the phylogenetic position of a morphologically distinct, anchialine-lake-restricted seahorse. Journal of Heredity 107(6): 553-558.

Short, F.T., Polidoro, B., Livingston, S.R., Carpenter, K.E., Bandeira, S., Bujang, J.S., Calumpong, H.P., Carruthers, T.J.B., Coles, R.G., Dennison, W.C., Erftemeijer, P.L.A., Fortes, M.D., Freeman, A.S., Jagtap, T.G., Kamal, A.H.M., Kendrick, G.A., Kenworthy, W.J., Nafie, Y.A.L., Nasution, I.M., Orth, R.J., Prathep, A., Sanciango, J.C., van Tussenbroek, Vergara, S.G., Waycott, M. and Zieman, J.C. B., 2011. Extinction risk assessment of the world's seagrass species. Biological Conservation 144(7): 1961–1971.

Silveira, R. B., Siccha-Ramirez, R., Silva, J. R. S., and Oliveira, C. 2014. Morphological and molecular evidence for the occurrence of three Hippocampus species (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) in Brazil. Zootaxa 3861(4): 317-332.

Teixeira, R.L. and Musick, J.A. 2001. Reproduction and food habits of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 61: 79–90.

Vincent, A.C.J. 1996. The International Trade in Seahorses. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, UK.

Vincent, A.C.J. and Sadler, L.M. 1995. Faithful pair bonds in wild seahorses, Hippocampus whitei.. Animal Behaviour 50: 1557-1569.

Vincent, A.C.J., Evans, K.L. and Marsden, A.D. 2005. Home ranges of the monogamous Australian seahorse, Hippocampus whitei. Environmental Biology of Fishes 72: 1-12.

Vincent, A.C.J., Foster, S.J. and Koldewey, H.J. 2011. Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78: 1681-1724.

Vincent, A.C.J., Sadovy, Y.J., Fowler, S.L. and Lieberman, S. 2013. The role of CITES in the conservation of marine fishes subject to international trade. Fish and Fisheries: 41.

West, K. 2012. Investigations into the Senegalese trade in CITES-listed seahorses, Hippocampus algiricus. Imperial College London.

Woodall, L.C., Koldewey, H.J., Santos, S.V. and Shaw, P.W. 2009. First occurrence of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Journal of fish biology 75: 1505-1512.

Woods, C.M.C. 2002. Natural diet of the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36(4): 655–660.

Yip, M.Y., Lim, A.C.O., Chong, V.C., Lawson, J.M. and Foster, S.J. 2014. Food and feeding habits of the seahorses Hippocampus spinosissimus and Hippocampus trimaculatus (Malaysia). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 95(5): 1033-1040.

Zhang, D., Yin, F, and Lin, J. 2011. Criteria for assessing juvenile quality of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus. Aquaculture 322-323: 255-258.

Zhang, D., Zhang, Y., Lin, J., and Lin, Q. 2010. Growth and survival of juvenile lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus (Perry), at different stocking densities. Aquaculture Research 42: 9-13.

Citation: Pollom, R. 2017. Hippocampus erectus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T10066A20191442. . Downloaded on 21 June 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided