Heterohyrax brucei


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Heterohyrax brucei
Species Authority: (Gray, 1868)
Common Name(s):
English Yellow-spotted Hyrax, Bush Hyrax, Hoggar Hyrax, Yellow-spotted Rock Hyrax
French Daman De Steppe
Heterohyrax antineae (Heim de Balsac & Begouen, 1932)
Heterohyrax chapini (Hatt, 1933)
Taxonomic Notes: This genus is sometimes considered to be polytypic, with the forms antineae (from the Ahaggar Massif in southern Algeria) and chapini treated as distinct isolated species (e.g., Schlitter 1993). Heterohyrax chapini is here subsumed under H. brucei, following recent authors (Barry and Shoshani 2000, Shoshani 2005, Barry and Hoeck in press), while the form antineae is considered to be a synonym of P. capensis (Hoffmann, M., Hoeck, H.N. and De Smet, K. unpubl.). Numerous subspecies have been described, and while the validity of many is in doubt, some may represent distinct species (see Barry and Shoshani 2000 and Barry and Hoeck in press for review).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Barry, R., Bloomer, P., Hoeck, H. & Shoshani, H. (IUCN SSC Afrotheria Specialist Group)
Reviewer(s): Rathbun, G. (Afrotheria Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, its occurrence in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
2006 Least Concern (IUCN 2006)
2006 Least Concern
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species has a wide distribution in Africa from the northern parts of South Africa (Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces) northwards to Ethiopia and Sudan; there is a disjunct population in the west-central Angola (H. b. bocagei) (Barry and Shoshani 2000; Barry and Hoeck in press) and an apparently isolated population in south-western Democratic Republic of Congo (H. b. chapini). References to this species in Algeria and Egypt are in error, and both relate to confusion with P. capensis (Hoffmann, M., Hoeck, H.N. and De Smet, K. unpubl.).
Angola (Angola); Botswana; Burundi; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Namibia; Rwanda; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Widespread and abundant in East Africa, but more localized and at lower population densities in parts of southern Africa. Densities in the Matobo N. P. in Zimbabwe ranged from 0.5-1.1 individuals per ha from 1992-1996 (Barry and Mundy 1998). Rainfall, through its effect on fecundity, appears to be the factor primarily responsible for annual fluctuations in abundance (Barry and Mundy 1998).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Habitat consists of rocky kopjes (small hills or outcrops), sheer cliffs or precipices, and piles of large boulders, commonly in association with Rock Hyrax Procavia capensis (Barry and Shoshani 2000; Barry and Hoeck in press). They are found to elevations of 3,800 m in East Africa (Kingdon 1971). Predominantly a browser, feeding on leaves, fruits, stems and bark (Barry and Shoshani 2000). A comprehensive review can be found in Barry and Shoshani (2000) and Barry and Hoeck (in press).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is used for meat and skins.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this species. Locally, the species may be hunted.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Bush Hyrax are found in many protected areas across their range. The taxonomic and population status of isolated populations should be assessed.

Citation: Barry, R., Bloomer, P., Hoeck, H. & Shoshani, H. (IUCN SSC Afrotheria Specialist Group) 2008. Heterohyrax brucei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 30 May 2015.
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