Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Hyracoidea Procaviidae

Scientific Name: Heterohyrax brucei
Species Authority: (Gray, 1868)
Common Name(s):
English Bush Hyrax, Yellow-spotted Hyrax, Hoggar Hyrax, Yellow-spotted Rock Hyrax
French Daman de steppe
Heterohyrax antineae (Heim de Balsac & Begouen, 1932)
Heterohyrax chapini (Hatt, 1933)
Hyrax brucei Gray, 1868
Taxonomic Notes: Heterohyrax is considered here a monotypic genus following Barry and Hoeck (2013). Considered to be polytypic in other classifications, with the forms antineae (from the Ahaggar Massif in southern Algeria) and chapini treated as distinct isolated species (e.g., Schlitter 1993). Heterohyrax chapini here subsumed under H. brucei, following recent authors (Barry and Shoshani 2000, Shoshani 2005, Barry and Hoeck 2013), while the form antineae is considered to be a synonym of P. capensis (Hoffmann et al. 2008). 24 subspecies have been described, and while the validity of many is in doubt, some may represent distinct species (Barry and Shoshani 2000, Barry and Hoeck 2013).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-01-20
Assessor(s): Butynski, T., Hoeck, H. & de Jong, Y.A.
Reviewer(s): Taylor, A.
Contributor(s): Barry, R., Bloomer, P. & Shoshani, H.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Koren, L.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, its occurrence in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2006 Least Concern (LC)
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Heterohyrax brucei, is endemic to Africa, and has a wide distribution. The species occurs from the northern parts of South Africa (Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces) northwards to Ethiopia, Sudan and Somalia; there is a large, disjoint population in west-central Angola (H. b. bocagei) (Barry and Shoshani 2000, Barry and Hoeck 2013), and an apparently isolated subpopulation in southwestern Democratic Republic of the Congo (H. b. chapini). References to this species in Algeria and Egypt are in error, and both relate to confusion with P. capensis (Hoffmann et al. 2008).

Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola); Botswana; Burundi; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Djibouti; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Somalia; South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga); South Sudan; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Upper elevation limit (metres): 3800
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Widespread and locally abundant in East Africa, but more localized and at lower population densities in parts of southern Africa (Barry and Hoeck 2013). Densities in the Matobo National Park in Zimbabwe ranged from 0.5-1.1 individuals per ha from 1992-1996 (Barry and Mundy 1998). Rainfall, through its effect on fecundity, appears to be the factor primarily responsible for annual fluctuations in abundance (Barry and Mundy 1998).
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Habitat consists of rocky koppies (small hills or outcrops), sheer cliffs or precipices, and piles of large boulders (Barry and Shoshani 2000, Barry and Hoeck 2013). Supported by Acacia bushland and woodland in the vicinity of boulders and outcrops in East Africa (T.M. Butynski and Y.A. de Jong pers. comms.). Commonly in association with Procavia capensis (Barry and Hoeck 2013). Heterohyrax brucei are present up to elevations of 3,800 m in East Africa (Kingdon 1971). Predominantly a browser, feeding on leaves, fruits, stems and bark (Barry and Shoshani 2000). Comprehensive reviews can be found in Barry and Shoshani (2000), and in Barry and Hoeck (2013).

Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is used for meat and skins. Skins used for blankets in southern Africa (Barry and Hoeck 2013).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this species. Locally, the species may be hunted for their pelts

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Bush Hyrax are found in many large, well-protected areas. The taxonomic and population status of isolated subpopulations should be assessed.

Citation: Butynski, T., Hoeck, H. & de Jong, Y.A. 2015. Heterohyrax brucei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T9997A21283287. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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