|Scientific Name:||Gymnocephalus cernua|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
Perca cernua Linnaeus, 1758
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Caspian, Black, Baltic and North Sea basins; Great Britain. North to about 69°N in Scandinavia. In Asia, Aral Sea basin, Arctic Ocean basin eastward to Kolyma drainage. Introduced or invasive in France west of Rhine, northern Italy, northern Great Britain and Greece. Introduced to Great Lakes region, North America.|
Native:Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Hungary; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Eutrophic lakes, lowland and piedmont rivers. Prefers still or slow-flowing water with soft bottom, without vegetation. Most abundant in estuaries of large rivers, brackish lakes with salinities up to 10-12‰ and reservoirs. Generally increases in abundance with increased eutrophication.
Females live up to 10 years, males up to seven. Spawns for the first time at 1-3 years, males one year earlier than females. Spawns in March-May, until July in the north, on a variety of substrates at depths of about 3 m or less. Spawns at temperatures above 6°C in the north and above 10°C in the south. Usually, a single female spawns with several males. Eggs become adhesive on contact with water and stick to stones or plants. Females may spawn intermittently, laying eggs in two or more portions, usually separated by about 30 days in summer. Eggs of first portion are larger than those of second portion. Larvae without, or with only a brief, pelagic larval stage, switching early to benthic life, secretive and solitary, not forming schools. Survival of larvae is poor below 10°C and above 20°C. Crepuscular or nocturnal. The well-developed cephalic lateral line system and tapetum lucidum in eyes makes it an efficient predator at night and in turbid waters. Usually feeds on benthic chironomid larvae and amphipods, which can be detected in the top layers of the substrate by sensory canals on head. Pelagic in coastal lakes and tidal estuaries, feeding on zooplankton and fish. When they coexist in deep lakes, Perca fluviatilis and G. cernuus partly occur at different depths, G. cernuus being more abundant in deeper layers.
|Use and Trade:||This species is often used as live bait.|
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Gymnocephalus cernua. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T9568A13002898. . Downloaded on 11 February 2016.|
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