|Scientific Name:||Gymnocephalus acerina|
|Species Authority:||(Gmelin, 1789)|
Perca acerina Gmelin, 1789
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species, known from the Dniestr, South Bug, Dniepr, Don and Kuban drainages, and not threatened but rare in most of its range.
|Range Description:||Basin of northern Black Sea and Sea of Azov: Dniestr, South Bug, Dniepr, Don and Kuban drainages. In Dniepr up to Belarus.|
Native:Belarus; Moldova; Russian Federation; Ukraine
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Flowing waters, also lakes with clear water; in summer in rapids; over sand and gravel bottom but prefers hard compact sand. Spawns in river stretches with heavy current and sand or gravel bottom.
Spawns for the first time at 2-3 years, 120-160 mm SL. Spawns in small schools. Female lays slightly sticky eggs in several portions: first at 6-8°C, second at 12-14°C. Eggs hatch in 6-8 days at 14-16°C. Newly hatched larvae first lie on bottom; at 9 days (when pectorals are developed), they actively move to middle water layers and drift downstream. At 12 days (6.5 mm SL), they start active feeding on small invertebrates in shallow shoreline habitats. A benthic species that aggregates in small schools. Usually crepuscular but feeds also during daytime. In September, starts forming large schools and moves to deeper places and remains inactive until ice melts. Does not migrate for long distances. Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates (crustaceans, insect larvae, molluscs), rarely on small fish.
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Gymnocephalus acerina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 May 2015.|
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