|Scientific Name:||Alouatta seniculus ssp. juara|
|Species Authority:||Elliot, 1910|
Alouatta juara Elliot, 1910
Alouatta seniculus subspecies amazonica Lönnberg, 1941
|Taxonomic Notes:||Hill (1962) and Stanyon et al. (1995) listed nine subspecies of the red howler monkey, Alouatta seniculus: A. s. seniculus, A. s. arctoidea, A. s. stramineus, A. s. macconnelli, A. s. insulanus, A. s. amazonica, A. s. juara, A. s. puruensis, and A. s. sara.
Groves (2001, 2005) considered Alouatta seniculus amazonica Lönnberg, 1941, from Codajáz, north of the Rio Solimões, west of the Rio Negro, and A. s. puruensis Lönnberg, 1941 from the Rio Purus to be junior synonyms of A. seniculus juara Elliot, 1910. Gregorin (2006) tentatively considered it to be a junior synonym of A. juara, extending the range of this species to the north of Rio Solimões. Gregorin (2006) himself stated that this was mere speculation, however, and the identity of the howling monkeys west of the Negro in the north-central Amazon (the eastern range limits of A. seniculus from Colombia) remains unclear.
Alouatta seniculus juara Elliot, 1910, from the Rio Juruá, is listed here as a full species following Gregorin (2006). Gregorin (2006) indicated that it occurs from the Juruá basin, west into Peru. Alouatta s. amazonica (north of the Amazon) he placed as a junior synonym. Groves (2001, 2005) recognized this form as a subspecies of A. seniculus, with A. s. amazonica and A. s. puruensis (which we consider distinct) as synonyms.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Boubli, J.-P., Di Fiore, A., Rylands, A.B. & Mittermeier, R.A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
This species is listed as Least Concern given its widespread (although incompletely known (relative to A. seniculus) distribution and lack of any apparent major threats believed to be resulting in a significant range-wide population decline.
|Range Description:||Gregorin (2006) indicated that this species occurs throughout the upper Amazon in Brazil in the states of Acre and Amazonas, to the south of the Rio Solimões. If A. seniculus amazonica is a junior synonym of A. juara, A. juara would be the species to the north of the Rio Solimões, west of the Rio Negro, extending into Colombia and the large part of the Peruvian Amazon, perhaps north of the Rio Inuya (A. puruensis to the south of the Río Inuya).
There is no information concerning the limits of the ranges of A. juara with A. seniculus of the Colombian Andes and Venezuela (type locality: Cartagena, Bolivar, Colombia), so they have been mapped together.
In Colombia, A. seniculus is absent from the Pacific and the desert of the Guajira Peninsula, and has not been reported from the Department of Nariño (Defler 2004). Otherwise, it is present throughout the country, except in non-forested areas and mountainous regions above about 3,000 m above sea level (though it has been reported at 3,200 m in the Central Andes. In Venezuela, Bodini and Pérez-Hernández (1987) indicate that the howler monkey north of the Rio Orinoco and west through Apure basin north of the Rio Meta the is a distinct, as yet undescribed, form of red howler, but Linares (1998) labeled it as A. arctoidea, otherwise also occurring along the north coast of Venezuela.
In summary, Alouatta juara-seniculus occurs west of the of the rios Juruá and Envira through the Peruvian Amazon north (say) of the Rio Inuya, north along the Andean Cordillera into Ecuador and in Colombia including the Cordillera Central and the Cordillera Oriental into Venezuela around Lake Maracaibo, west of the Serra de Merida. It is possible that either an undescribed red howler (Bodini and Pérez-Hernández 1987) or A. arctoidea (Linares 1998) occurs north of the Rio Meta in Colombia.
Native:Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Roraima); Peru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Peres (1997) estimated the following population densities in terra firma forest in the Brazilian Amazon: Kaxinawá Reserve 9.2 individuals/km²; Altamira 4.6 individuals/km²; Barro Vermelho I 1.0 individuals/km²; Fortuna 5.3 individuals/km²; Vira Volta 4.7 individuals/km²; Riozinho 8.4 individuals/km². In várzea (white-water flooded forest), the densities tend to be higher: Sacado do Condor 24.7 individuals/km²; Nova Empresa 35.7 individuals/km²; Barro Vermelho II 15,6 individuals/km²; Lago da Fortuna 35.7 individuals/km². Queiroz (1995) estimated a density of 38 individuals/km² at Lago Mamirauá, between the rios Japurá and Solimões.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is found in evergreen rain forest. Along the Rio Juruá, and undoubtedly elsewhere in its range, it tends to be more common in seasonally flooded forest (várzea) than in terra firma forest (Peres 1997; Queiroz 1995).
The howler monkeys are the large leaf-eaters of the South American primate communities. The molar teeth are particularly adapted for their chewing leaves through shearing. They spend up to 70% of their day lying and sitting about quietly among the branches, fermenting leaves in their enlarged caecums. Like the spider monkeys, they are prehensile-tailed, with a naked patch of skin on the under surface at the tip. Their most characteristic feature is the deep jaws which surround the enlarged larynx and hyoid apparatus, a resonating chamber. It is with this enlarged and highly specialized voice box that they produce their howls (grunts, roars and barks). Howling sessions, usually involving the entire group, can be heard particularly in the early morning and are audible at distances of 1-2 kms (Drubbel and Gautier 1993).
Fourteen is a large group for the red howler monkeys; they usually number four or five or up to 11 or so individuals. In the red howlers, there is usually only one dominant male in the group (occasionally two), others being sub-adults, or juveniles, along with a harem of two to five females. Unlike the spider monkeys, and related to the large proportion of leaves in the diet (up to 50% of the annual diet), the howler monkeys generally have quite small and broadly overlapping home ranges, of 5 ha up to 45 ha, depending on the type of habitat (Neville et al. 1988).
Howlers are the only New World primates which regularly include mature leaves in their diet, although softer, less fibrous, young leaves are preferred when they are available. Their folivory and ability to eat mature leaves is undoubtedly one of the keys to their wide distribution and the wide variety of vegetation types they inhabit. Mature fruit is the other important food item, especially wild figs (Ficus) in many regions, but they also eat leaf petioles, buds, flowers (sometimes seasonally very important), seeds, moss, stems and twigs, and termitaria.
Oestrus lasts 2-4 days, with intervals between oestrous periods of about 17 days. Interbirth intervals are generally about 16.6 months, although they may be shortened by the death of an infant to about 10.5 months (Crockett and Sekulic 1984). Mean gestation length is 191 days (range 186-194, n=6) (as for A. seniculus seniculus in Crockett and Sekulic , considered here to be A. arctoidea).
As for Alouatta seniculus, Brazil
Adult male 7.62 kg (n=28) (Ayres 1986)
Adult female 6.02 kg (n=34) (Ayres 1986).
|Major Threat(s):||There are probably no major threats across the range, although Aquino and Encarnación (1994a) reported that populations of red howlers have declined in the lower parts of the selva alta (high forest) in the Peruvian Amazon as a result of colonization by humans, hunting and deforestation, noting particularly the valley of Chanchamayo (Department of Junín) where they have been extirpated. Although hunted throughout its range, they are less susceptible to hunting pressure than are other atelids.|
This species occurs, or may occur, in the following protected areas:
Jau National Park (2,378,410 ha)
Serra do Divisor National Park (846,408 ha) (Lopes and Rehg 2003)
Rio Acre Ecological Station (79,418 ha)
Iquê Ecological Station (217,184 ha)
Jutaí-Solimões Ecological Station (287,101 ha)
Mamirauá State Sustainable Development Reserve (1,124,000 ha)
Amanã State Sustainable Development Reserve (2,350,000 ha)
Cujubim State Sustainable Development Reserve (2,450,381 ha)
Pacaya Samiria National Reserve (2,080,000 ha) (Aquino and Encarnación 1994a)
Manu National Park (1,532,806 ha) (Terborgh, 1983; Aquino and Encarnación 1994a)
Tingo Maria National Park (18,000 ha) (Aquino and Encarnación 1994a)
Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Communal Reserve (Aquino and Encarnación 1994a).
It is listed on Appendix II of CITES.
|Citation:||Boubli, J.-P., Di Fiore, A., Rylands, A.B. & Mittermeier, R.A. 2008. Alouatta seniculus ssp. juara. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 July 2015.|
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