Fundulus waccamensis


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Fundulus waccamensis
Species Authority: Hubbs & Raney, 1946
Common Name(s):
English Waccamaw Killifish

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2012-02-02
Assessor(s): NatureServe
Reviewer(s): Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it occurs in a single location (extent of occurrence is larger than 20 sq km, smaller than 100 sq km). Population size is very large and probably relatively stable. The species would qualify for Critically Endangered status in the event of a significant decline in the population or habitat quality.
2010 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Range is limited to Lake Waccamaw and tributaries, Columbus County, North Carolina (Menhinick 1991). This species has been reported from Phelps Lake, Washington County, North Carolina, where it probably was introduced via bait bucket, but that population appears to be more similar to Fundulus diaphanus than to F. waccamensis (Starnes pers. comm. 2004).
United States
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is represented by a single occurrence (subpopulation) (Menhinick 1991).

Total adult population size is unknown but probably exceeds 1 million (Lindquist and Yarbrough 1982). This fish is common within its small range (Page and Burr 2011).

Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are relatively stable or declining at a rate of less than 10% over 10 years or three generations.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a mid-water or near-surface species occurring in large schools over sandy bottoms in open waters or near emergent vegetation on sandy shoals or around shores; in winter, it commonly occurs in swamps and canals surrounding Lake Waccamaw (Shute, in Lee et al. 1980). It spawns on silty or sandy substrate, possibly on vegetation (Shute et al. 1979).
Systems: Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No major threats exist at the present time. Residential septic tank runoff is increasing in Lake Waccamaw (J. R. Shute pers. comm. 1995); potentially this could increase eutrophication and reduce habitat quality/quantity. Upland deforestation and consequent siltation of lake could negatively affect development of the demersal eggs (Shute 1997). Habitat is indirectly protected by designation of Lake Waccamaw as critical habitat (U.S. Endangered Species Act) for Menidia extensa.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

This species would benefit from habitat restoration, improved habitat protection and management, and better information on trend and threats.

Citation: NatureServe 2013. Fundulus waccamensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 30 August 2015.
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