|Scientific Name:||Fundulus waccamensis|
|Species Authority:||Hubbs & Raney, 1946|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||NatureServe (G. Hammerson)|
|Reviewer/s:||Shute, P.W. (Freshwater Fish Red List Authority), Collen, B., Dewhurst, N. & Ram, M. (Sampled Red List Index Coordinating Team)|
Fundulus waccamensis has been assessed as Endangered under criterion B1ab(iii). This species has an extent of occurrence of approximately 196 km² and is restricted to Lake Waccamaw and a few drainage inlet canals around the lake. The habitat of Fundulus waccamensis is also suffering continuing decline in its quality and extent due to rising water temperatures, deforestation and siltation. This species is very close to qualifying for a higher threat status and therefore conservation efforts are needed to ensure migration routes to the canal system surrounding Lake Waccamaw are not obstructed and also to maintain high water quality within the canals.
|Range Description:||The range of Fundulus waccamensis is restricted to Lake Waccamaw and its associated tributaries in Columbus County, North Carolina (Menhinick 1991, Shute, Shute and Lindquist 1981). This species has been reported from Phelps Lake in Washington County, North Carolina where it may have been introduced via bait bucket. However this population appears to be more morphologically similar to F. diaphanus than F. waccamensis (W.C. Starnes 2004 pers. comm, Krabbenhoft et al. 2008). This species is estimated to have an extent of occurrence of approximately 196 km².|
Native:United States (North Carolina)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Fundulus waccamensis is represented by a single population (Menhinick 1991).
The total adult population size was estimated by Lindquist and Yarbrough (1982) at one to ten million individuals.
Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are relatively stable or declining at a rate of less than 10% over 10 years or three generations.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Fundulus waccamensis is a near-surface to mid-water species, occurring in large schools over sandy bottoms in open water or near emergent vegetation. Throughout summer this species inhabits inshore areas, often near submerged vegetation (Krabbenhoft et al. 2008) and during the winter months, it is commonly seen in swamps and canals surrounding Lake Waccamaw (Lee et al. 1980, Krabbenhoft et al. 2008). Spawning occurs from April until August in shallow (< 1 m) water (Krabbenhoft et al. 2008) and individuals spawn on silty or sandy substrate and possibly on vegetation (Shute et al. 1979, Shute et al. 1983).|
Fundulus waccamensis is threatened by water temperatures in shallow areas of the lake which are frequently above lethal limits, thus restricting available breeding habitat. It is also possible that eutrophication could exacerbate this problem (Krabbenhoft et al. 2008).
This species is also threatened by upland deforestation and concomitant siltation in the lake which threatens development of demersal eggs (Krabbenhoft et al. 2008).
Fundulus waccamensis may also be impacted by residential septic tank run-off which is increasing into Lake Waccamaw (P.W. Shute pers. comm. 2010).
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Fundulus waccamensis; however, its habitat is indirectly protected by Critical Habitat of Lake Waccamaw for the federally Threatened Menidia extensa (US Fish and Wildlife Service 1999). Fundulus waccamensis was also previously assessed as Vulnerable (criteria D2) on the 1996 IUCN Red List version 2.3.
Conservation efforts are needed to ensure migration routes to the canal system surrounding Lake Waccamaw are not obstructed (Krabbenhoft et al. 2008). Maintaining high water quality within the canals is also critical for the conservation of this species (Krabbenhoft et al. 2008). Monitoring of the population numbers is also needed.
|Citation:||NatureServe (G. Hammerson) 2010. Fundulus waccamensis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 June 2013.|
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