|Scientific Name:||Fundulus julisia|
|Species Authority:||Williams & Etnier, 1982|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Endangered because extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are less than 500 sq km, number of locations does not exceed 5, and the few remaining populations are subject to ongoing threats from habitat alteration and non-native species.
|Range Description:||Range includes the Barrens Plateau area of Cannon, Coffee, and Warren counties, Tennessee, including headwaters of the Duck and Elk rivers (Tennessee drainage) and the Caney Fork River system in the Cumberland drainage; apparently extirpated from the Duck River system; the only populations with significant numbers of individuals remaining are in the West Fork Hickory Creek system and at Pond Spring (Etnier and Starnes 1993, Rakes 1996). Plans call for introductions of topminnows into additional sites (Winford 2002).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Declined from 14 localities in the early 1980s to 7 in the mid-1990s; currently two known viable populations (Rakes 1996, Winford 2002).
Abundance declined from an estimated 4500-5000 adults in the early 1980s to only a few hundred adults in 1995 (Rakes 1996).
Declined greatly between the early 1980s and mid-1990s; populations at 17-18 historic localities, including sites where reintroductions were attempted, appear to have been extirpated (Rakes 1996).
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but probably relatively stable or slowly declining.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat includes waters of springs, spring runs, and first- and second-order headwaters and creeks; most abundant in calm, shallow, unshaded, heavily vegetated spring pools, especially in association with watercress and filamentous algae; seems to do best in springs and groundwater-influenced areas; may occur in isolated, temporary wetlands and sloughs adjacent to more permanent waters; spawns mainly over clumps of filamentous algae, to which the eggs adhere (Etnier and Starnes 1993).|
|Major Threat(s):||Impoundment apparently caused habitat changes that resulted in extirpation of one population (Rakes 1996). Drought-caused dewatering of streams probably has been exacerbated by stream diversions and irrigation withdrawals associated with agriculture. Water quality is vulnerable to degradation by runoff and groundwater inflow contaminated with silt, petroleum products, and pesticides; habitat is vulnerable to destruction and degradation by livestock, draining, bulldozing, dredging, removal of aquatic vegetation, and successional changes that cause excessive shading; these factors appear to be at least partially responsible for recent population declines and extirpations. Before being removed, Muscovy ducks nearly extirpated a population through direct predation and habitat destruction. The western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) may be the greatest threat to the continued existence of F. julisia; mosquitofish populations are becoming more widespread and abundant in the range of F. julisia and appear to be replacing F. julisia. Collection for use as bait is a potential threat. See Rakes (1996).|
|Conservation Actions:||Better information is needed on trends in groundwater levels (Rakes 1996). Frequent monitoring of populations is essential (extirpations can occur quickly, even in sites with landowner conservation agreements) (Rakes 1996). Highland Rim area should be surveyed for undiscovered populations. Surveys for good reintroduction sites are needed. All known occurrences warrant protection. Landowners should be educated about topminnows and their habitat requirements and threats (Rakes 1996). Creation and protection of refuges on publicly owned and protected property may be helpful (Rakes 1996).|
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Fundulus julisia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 August 2015.|
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