Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Eupleridae

Scientific Name: Fossa fossana
Species Authority: (P.L.S. Müller, 1776)
Common Name(s):
English Spotted Fanaloka, Fanaloka, Malagasy Civet
French Civette Fossane, Civette Malgache, Fossane
Spanish Cibeta de Madagascar
Viverra fossa Schreber, 1777

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Hawkins, A.F.A.
Reviewer(s): Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team) & Duckworth, J.W. (Small Carnivore Red List Authority)
This species has been found to be locally common in some areas, and is widely dispersed from north to south through eastern Madagascar forests. However, over the last 10 years, the population reduction of this species based on the combined impacts of habitat loss (especially given its habitat requirements), widespread hunting and the effects of feral carnivores, is estimated at 20-25%, and the species is therefore listed as Near Threatened. Almost qualifies as threatened under criterion A2cde.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (V)
1990 Vulnerable (V)
1988 Vulnerable (V)
1986 Insufficiently Known (K)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the eastern forests and the Sambirano Region in the north-west of Madagascar (Kerridge et al. 2003). It is present as far north as Montagne d'Ambre National Park and as far south as Andohahela National Park in the south-east. Strongholds include the Masoala Peninsula, rainforests at Mananara, Ambatovaky and Zahamena, and the Andohahela forest region. The altitudinal range is sea level to at least 1,600 m, but the species seems much scarcer above 1,000 m.
Countries occurrence:
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species has been found to be locally common (Kerridge et al. 2003).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This nocturnal and terrestrial species is found in humid tropical lowland, mid-altitude and littoral forests, and is sometimes associated with streams or marshy areas in these habitats (Kerridge et al. 2003). It seems that this species does not adapt to secondary habitats (Kerridge et al. 2003). During the daytime, animals shelter in hollow trees, under fallen logs, or amongst rocks. The gestation period is around 82 and 89 days (Albignac 1973). Young are born well developed, and sexual maturity is attained at about two years of age.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is threatened by deforestation of its habitat through conversion to cultivated land, selective logging and charcoal production. This species is also threatened by hunting, and the taste is most preferred among the native carnivores (Golden 2005). Introduced species including dogs, cats, and the small Indian civet Viverricula indica are competitors, and dogs are also likely predators.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is listed on Appendix II of CITES. This species is present in a number of protected areas, including Montagne d’Ambre, Masoala, Marojejy, Zahamena, Ranomafana and Andohahela National Parks, and Ankarana Special Reserve.

Citation: Hawkins, A.F.A. 2008. Fossa fossana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T8668A12925675. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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