Eurypegasus papilio 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Syngnathiformes Pegasidae

Scientific Name: Eurypegasus papilio (Gilbert, 1905)
Common Name(s):
English Hawaiian Sea-moth Fish
Pegasus papilio Gilbert, 1905
Taxonomic Source(s): Palsson, W.A. and Pietsch, T.W. 1989. Revision of the acanthopterygian fish family Pegasidae (order Gasterosteiformes). Indo-Pacific Fishes 18: 1038.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-07-08
Assessor(s): Pollom, R.
Reviewer(s): Ralph, G.
Contributor(s): Vincent, A. & Sorensen, M.
Eurypegasus papilio is a sea moth that is endemic to the marine waters around the Hawaiian Islands. They inhabit sandy or muddy shelf waters at depths of 80-115 m. Little is known about population size or trends in abundance. They may be susceptible to being caught as bycatch in trawl fisheries, but Hawaii has banned trawling in much of their waters. There are no other known threats. Therefore this species is listed as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Eurypegasus papilio is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands from Kure Atoll southeast to Hawai'i Island (Tinker 1978, Palsson and Pietsch 1989).

Countries occurrence:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – eastern central
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):UnknownEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):Unknown
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:Unknown
Lower depth limit (metres):115
Upper depth limit (metres):80
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:To date there have been no dedicated surveys or population estimates for Eurypegasus papilio. Further research is needed in order to determine population size and trends in abundance for this species.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:UnknownPopulation severely fragmented:Unknown
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:UnknownAll individuals in one subpopulation:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Eurypegasus papilio inhabits moderately deep benthic environments (Palsson and Pietsch 1989). Larvae and juveniles are often collected in neuston and plankton nets, and midwater research trawls (Palsson and Pietsch 1989). Little is known about their reproductive biology, but their congener Eurypegasus draconis exhibits low population densities, monogamy and pair-bonding, and release pelagic eggs at dusk (Herold and Clark 1993). That species' food included isopods, harpacticoid copepods, goby eggs, polychaetes, nematodes, trematodes, shrimps, molluscs, and foraminifera (Herold and Clark 1993), and the diet of E. papilio is likely similar. They reach a maximum standard length of 7.6 cm (Tinker 1978). 

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Movement patterns:Unknown

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Pegasids in general are increasingly being used in traditional medicines, and are caught as bycatch in trawl fisheries (Vincent 1997, Pajaro et al. 2004). It is not known if this species is involved or susceptible.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The threats to this species are unknown. Although they can be caught as bycatch in trawl fisheries, a large portion of Hawaiian waters have a trawl ban in place (Stiles et al. 2010).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Eurypegasus papilio may occur in a number of Hawaiian marine protected areas including Ahihi-kinau, Hanauma Bay, Manele-Huloppe and Waikiki (Wood 2007), but the presence of the species in these protected areas is yet to be determined. It is not mentioned in any international legislation or trade regulations. 

Errata [top]

Errata reason: This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.

Citation: Pollom, R. 2016. Eurypegasus papilio (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T8408A115087526. . Downloaded on 21 April 2018.
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