|Scientific Name:||Ambystoma tigrinum (Green, 1825)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Populations east of the Apalachicola River Basin and Appalachian Mountains have been diverging from western populations (the form mavortium) for approximately 1 million years. Collectively, eastern populations might constitute a distinct species (Church et al. 2003).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Wake, D., Church, D., Parra-Olea, G., Hammerson, G.A. & Shaffer, H.B.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Sharp, D. & Hobin, L.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations and locations, and large population size, and because the species probably is not declining fast enough to qualify for any of the threatened categories.
|Range Description:||This occurs throughout much of eastern North America from eastern Texas to northern Florida and northward to extreme south-central Canada and – east of the Appalachian Mountains – through the Atlantic Coastal Plain to Long Island in New York in the United States. It is absent from most of New England and the Appalachian mountains. The range extends west to the eastern Great Plains region, where it meets Ambystoma mavortium (long regarded as conspecific).|
Native:Canada (Manitoba, Ontario); United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Wisconsin)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Sub-populations east of the Appalachians are highly patchy in distribution with several local extirpations having been documented over the past 20 years. Remaining eastern sub-populations are small in size and several are in decline as a result of pesticide use and ecological succession (Church 2003, Semlitsch et al. 1996, Zappalorti 1994). There are no recent records of Eastern Tiger Salamanders from southern Ontario (COSEWIC 2013).|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It can be found in virtually any habitat, providing there is a terrestrial substrate suitable for burrowing and a body of water nearby suitable for breeding. Terrestrial adults usually are underground, in self-made burrows or in those made by rodents, shrews, or other animals. In New York, adults on land used wooded areas and avoided grassy areas (Madison and Farrand 1998). Eggs are attached to submerged objects on the pond bottom.|
|Use and Trade:||This species sometimes is found in the international pet trade, but not at levels that constitute a major threat.|
|Major Threat(s):||Sub-populations in the southeastern USA have been detrimentally affected by deforestation and loss of wetland habitats for agriculture, and appear to be declining (Petranka 1998). Population viability analyses of sub-populations in the eastern USA have shown that demographically isolated sub-populations are highly susceptible to extinction, particularly under conditions of high weather variability (Church 2003).|
Necessary measures include basic habitat protection and policies that discourage the introduction of predatory fishes into habitats where they are not native.
Further research on phylogeographic patterns and taxonomic status of major population segments is needed.
|Errata reason:||This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.|
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Ambystoma tigrinum (errata version published in 2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T83293207A105179324.Downloaded on 15 October 2018.|
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