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Eulemur sanfordi

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES LEMURIDAE

Scientific Name: Eulemur sanfordi
Species Authority: (Archbold, 1932)
Common Name(s):
English Sanford's Brown Lemur
Synonym(s):
Eulemur fulvus (Archbold, 1932) subspecies sanfordi
Taxonomic Notes: Formerly considered a subspecies of Eulemur fulvus, but later raised to species level (Groves 2001).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.
Justification:
The extent of occurrence (EOO) of this species covers less than 5,000 km². This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. The number of mature individuals is also known to be in decline. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.
History:
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable (Groombridge 1994)
1990 Vulnerable (IUCN 1990)
1990 Vulnerable (IUCN 1990)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species has a restricted range in northern Madagascar, the southerly limit being Manambato River. The distribution range is centred on Ankarana, Anamalerana and Montagne d'Ambre, with a disjunct population in Daraina to the southeast. Ranges from sea level to 1,400 m. The extent of occurrence (EOO), based on precautionary principle, is estimated to be less than 5,000 km2.
Countries:
Native:
Madagascar
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Sanford’s Brown Lemur occurs at higher densities on the slopes of Montagne d’Ambre and in other evergreen forests than it does in dry deciduous forests of the region, such as those of the Analamerana Special Reserve. On Montagne d'Ambre they are particularly common between 800 and 1,000 m (Freed 1996). In two sites in Analamerana, densities have been recorded at 3.5-5.5 individuals/km²; this species is less abundant and occurs at lower density than Crowned Lemurs in both Analamerana and Ankarana (Banks et al. 2007).

Matthew Banks and James Herrera (pers. comm. 2013) estimate the following population densities at the following sites: Ambatovazaha - 16.69 individuals/km²;  Ampasimaty - 0 individuals/km²; Ampondrabe - 98.87 individuals/km²; Andampibe - 8 individuals/km²; Andrafiambany - 0 individuals/km²; Madiromasina - 21.55 individuals/km²; Mahanoro - 9.27 individuals/km²; Antsahabe – 10.91 individuals/km². The overall mean of densities estimated at each site separately is 25.33 individuals/km². These results were generated from using a global detection probability, estimated from all the data within the truncation distance, not for each site separately.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found in moist montane, such as on Montagne d'Ambre, and dry deciduous forests. In Ankarana National Park, it appears to favor secondary forest and is active both day and night. These lemurs are absent from very dry forests such as those of Cap d’Ambre, north of Antsiranana, but it is present in those of Daraina, to the south-east. The diet consists mainly of fruit but also includes other plant parts (buds, young leaves and flowers) according to seasonal availability, as well as the occasional invertebrate (e.g., centipedes, millipedes, and spiders). Flowers make up a greater proportion of the diet during dry season months than they do during the rainy season. In Ankarana groups may include up to 15 animals, significantly larger than those observed in Montagne d’Ambre, which range from three to nine animals. Mating occurs in late May and births usually take place in late September or early October (Mittermeier et al. 2008, and references therein). Often found associating with E. coronatus, especially in the wet season (Freed 1996).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is hunted for food and captured for the pet trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The primary threat to the survival of Sanford’s Brown Lemur is habitat destruction, due to mining for sapphires and slash-and-burn practices, although it does appear to survive in degraded habitats. They are also hunted and commonly kept as pets in the Antsiranana region. Widespread poaching has been reported in both Montagne d' Ambre National Park and in the Analamerana Special Reserve (Hawkins et al. 1990).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It is known to occur in two national parks (Ankarana and Montagne d' Ambre), in the Analamerana Special Reserve, and in the forests of Daraina (the Loky-Manambato Protected Area) (Randrianarisoa et al. 1999). As of 2009, there were only six Sanford's brown lemurs reported in two zoological collections, both in the United States (ISIS 2009).

Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Eulemur sanfordi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 September 2014.
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