The species is susceptible to the following threats: 1. Climate change, particularly with regard to altered hydrological regimes and severe weather events. Climate change modeling predicts that southeastern mainland Australia will experience a warmer and drier climate, leading to decreased runoff and soil moisture (Chiew and McMahon 2002, Howden 2003, Hughes 2003, Pittock 2003, Hennessy 2006, Westoby and Burgman 2006, IPCC 2007); 2. The alteration of hydrological regimes is likely to impact environmental flows, particularly in areas of increasing demand for domestic, industrial and agricultural water supplies (Hennessy 2006); 3. Over-exploitation. This restricted range species is susceptible to over-exploitation by collectors and illegal fishing pressure (O’Brien 2007); 4. Exotic fish. Potentially large scale threats from exotic fishes such as Brown Trout or Redfin Perch, which are prevalent throughout the region (Davies and McDowall 1996, Rowe et al. 2008); 5. Other exotic species (cats, foxes, pigs, goats) that have generally been found to impact on crayfish (e.g. Green and Osbourne 1981; Horwitz 1990, Merrick 1995, Eyre et al. 1997, ACT Government 2007, O’Brien 2007) also occur in this species’ range (DEH 2004a,b,c,d), and could have localised impacts on E. eungella and contribute to declines in distribution and/or local abundance (J.M. Furse and J. Coughran pers. comm. 2008). Due to the narrow thermal tolerance of this species, and its restricted range (restricted to cool, headwater streams in forested catchments), global temperature increase has resulted in range contraction. This species is further compromised by the presence of exotic species (feral pigs, foxes, Cane Toads and cats) which are known to predate on crayfish and degrade riparian habitat; while the precise effects of these threats on this species are not yet well understood, they are believed to be significantly impacting the long term viability of the population (J. Furse and J. Coughran pers. comm. 2010).