|Scientific Name:||Etheostoma fonticola|
|Species Authority:||(Jordan & Gilbert, 1886)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Endangered because it occurs in only two locations, has an extent of occurrence of less than 100 sq km and area of occupancy of approximately 10 sq km, and faces declines in habitat quality/quantity caused by habitat dewatering and non-native species.
|Range Description:||This darter is endemic to the upper San Marcos and Comal rivers in central Texas (Hubbs et al. 2008). San Marcos and Comal rivers are spring-fed streams deriving from the Edwards Aquifer. The original population in the Comal River was extirpated in the mid-1950s when Comal Springs ceased to flow (Hubbs et al. 2008). A population from San Marcos was reintroduced into Comal Springs during the early 1970s (Hubbs et al. 2008).
During periods of low flows, the National Fish Hatchery and Technology Center in San Marcos, Texas, serves as a refugium (Bonner and McDonald 2005).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is represented by two occurrences.
Population in the San Marcos River watershed was estimated in the 1970s at 103,000 (Schenck and Whiteside 1976). Linam et al. (1993) estimated the upper Comal River population at 168,078 individuals (Linam et al. 1993).
USFWS (1990) categorized the status as "unknown." Based on USFWS (1996), trend must be regarded as unknown but possibly declining.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat includes vegetated springs, pools, and runs of effluent rivers (Page and Burr 2011). This fish inhabits springs and spring-fed streams in dense beds of aquatic plants (particularly filamentous algae) growing close to bottom, which is normally mucky. It prefers clear, quiet, warm backwaters. Eggs are apparently laid on dead leaves, twigs, rocks, algae, or similar objects.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not utilized.|
Primary threats include:
Jelks et al. (2008) categorized this species as Endangered, due to:
|Conservation Actions:||Better information on current distribution, abundance, and trend is needed. Important aquifers need to be identified and protected.|
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Etheostoma fonticola. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 July 2014.|
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