|Scientific Name:||Geranium kauaiense|
|Species Authority:||(Rock) H.St.John|
Geranium humile Hillebr. ssp. kauaiense (Rock) Carlquist & Bissing
Geranium humile Hillebr. var. kauaiense Rock
Neurophyllodes kauaiense (Rock) O.Deg. & Greenwell
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at: http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v) ver 3.1|
Geranium kauaiense is assessed as Critically Endangered. The taxon is endemic to the island of Kauai and has an extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of <10 km2. It has experienced severe and ongoing decline in habitat and numbers due to the impacts of invasive plants and animals. Its distribution is severely fragmented, occurring in only four localities. Geranium kauaiense has approximately 120 mature individuals. It is considered to be in two locations to account for differing degrees of fencing.
One subpopulation of G. kauaiense is threatened by pigs, goats, and deer. All subpopulations are impacted by invasive weeds.
This species is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, found in montane bogs on the island of Kauai from the Alakai Plateau to the Waialeale Summit between 1,220 and 1,250 m elevation.
Native:United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The taxon is Critically Endangered, with a total known population of about 120 individuals in four subpopulations.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
The taxon is a decumbent sub-shrub found in Hawaiian montane bogs on the island of Kauai that dominated by Oreobolus and Carex. Furthermore, its habitat is restricted to montane wet mixed communities.
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||There are no known uses for this species.|
|Major Threat(s):||The degradation of its habitat by feral pigs and grazing by goats has been a major threat. Fences have been erected around patches of bog habitat to protect it from ungulates and larger landscape level fence is being constructed by the Kauai Watershed Alliance. The Nature Conservancy is eradicating feral ungulates within the watershed fences. Non-native invasive species of plants have severely degraded habitat. Direct competition by invasive non-native plant species, especially Juncus planifolius, Psidium cattleianum, Cyathea cooperi, and Axonopus fissifolius, and depredation by non-native animals pigs, goats, and deer (Sus scrofa, Capra hircus, Odocoileus hemionus) have all been observed. In addition, the taxon is threatened by drought and climate change. Fortini et al. (2013) characterized this taxon as extremely vulnerable to climate change (Vulnerability index 0.926).|
The taxon is on the US Endangered Species List, and also on the State of Hawaii Endangered Species List. Three of four subpopulations occur in fenced areas, which provide some conservation management, such as ungulate exclusion, invasive species control, and opportunistic annual to biannual monitoring by the State of Hawaii's Plant Extinction Prevention Program. Ex situ cultivation has been unsuccessful and some seed storage has occurred.
|Citation:||Tangalin, N. 2015. Geranium kauaiense. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T80231538A80231679.Downloaded on 29 June 2017.|
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