Silene perlmanii 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Caryophyllales Caryophyllaceae

Scientific Name: Silene perlmanii W.L.Wagner, D.R.Herbst & Sohmer
Taxonomic Source(s): Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild) D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-08-14
Assessor(s): Chau, M., Sporck-Koehler, M., Gon, S.M., Keir, M., Portner, T., Sugii, N., Caraway, V.L. & Kwon, J.
Reviewer(s): Bruegmann, M. & Yoshioka, J.M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Schatz, G.E.

Silene perlmanii is assessed as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild). The taxon was endemic to the island of Oʻahu and, being last observed in 1997, has an extent of occurrence of zero km2. It had experienced severe and ongoing decline in habitat and numbers due to the impacts of invasive plants and animals. It is in cultivation and seed storage. This qualifies the taxon for a ranking of Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild) under criterion D.

Date last seen: 1997

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

This species is endemic to the Hawaiian islands, at 790 m elevation in the Waiʻanae mountains on the island of Oʻahu.

Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:0
Lower elevation limit (metres):790
Upper elevation limit (metres):790
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


The taxon is extremely rare (possibly extinct in the wild), with a total known population of zero individuals. 

Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:0Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:0Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The taxon is a perennial subshrub that was found in Hawaiian lowland mesic forests.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no known uses for this species.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

The major threats to this taxon include direct competition by invasive non-native plant species, especially Erigeron karvinskianum, Melinis minutiflora, Morella faya, Passiflora suberosa, and Schinus terebinthifolia; as well as predation and habitat degradation by non-native animals, particularly pigs and goats. Fortini et al. (2013) did not characterize the climate change vulnerability of this taxon.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

The taxon is on the US Endangered Species List, and also on the State of Hawaiʻi Endangered Species List. The last known subpopulations occurred in protected areas, but were not fenced. Ex situ cultivation and seed storage is also ongoing. Outplantings have occurred in a fenced exclosure, but have not yet yielded viable offspring. Further research is needed on general ecology, life history, and population genetics. 

Citation: Chau, M., Sporck-Koehler, M., Gon, S.M., Keir, M., Portner, T., Sugii, N., Caraway, V.L. & Kwon, J. 2015. Silene perlmanii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T80219542A80219567. . Downloaded on 20 September 2018.
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