|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Kaczensky, P., Lkhagvasuren, B., Pereladova, O., Hemami, M. & Bouskila, A.
||King, S.R.B. & Moehlman, P.D.
||Bi, J., Cao, Q. & Yang, W.
This subspecies is assessed as Near Threatened (NT) because a population decline of at least 20% is projected over the next three generations, based on old prevailing and newly emerging risks, thus approaching Vulnerable (VU) under A3bcd.
Although the population is large and currently appears stable, the rapid infrastructure development in the region and the associated influx of people in large parts of the subspecies range could quickly result in the re-emerging of old threats (e.g. increased competition with livestock for water and pasture, high poaching levels). Furthermore, linear infrastructure (e.g. roads, railways, canals) - if not carefully designed and mitigated - are likely to result in high mortalities if Wild Asses are impeded in their long-distance movements and become cut-off from important resources or refuge areas. Mongolia, which currently houses over 75% of the global population of the species, is at a crossroad and the outcome will depend on Mongolia’s ability to become “a global model for demonstrating that major economic development projects can proceed without degrading ungulate migrations” (Batsaikhan et al. 2014). Two of three Wild Ass populations in China are very small and data deficient, the population in Mazongshan (Gansu) may even be already extinct.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2002 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Data Deficient (DD)
- 1994 – Extinct? (Ex?)
- 1965 – Status inadequately known-survey required or data sought
|Range Description:||The Mongolian Khulan has become restricted to the Mongolian Gobi and adjacent areas in northern China.|
Anecdotal evidence suggests that the Asiatic Wild Ass may have lost as much as 70% of its range in Mongolia since the 19th century because of direct persecution and competition with humans and their livestock over water and pasture use (Bannikov 1981, Reading et al. 2001). Reliable historic range maps and population numbers for wild asses are largely unavailable or based on short term expeditions. Range size within Mongolia seems to have remained rather constant since the 1970s, with the species nowadays being restricted to the Gobi areas of southern Mongolia. Fences have been shown to constitute absolute movement barriers and in the east the fenced Ulaanbaatar-Beijing railway constitutes the eastern border of the species range in Mongolia (Kaczensky et al. 2011). In the south, the border fence along the international border with China inhibits cross-border exchange between Khulan in China and Mongolia (Kaczensky et al. 2011a, Kaczensky et al. unpubl. data). Consequently, the Chinese populations should be regarded as separate populations.
In northern China, Khulan primarily occur in and around Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang province (Chu et al. 2009). A second small occurrence may still be present in Mazongshan, Gansu presence although no monitoring has happened since 2007 (Bi 2007) and even back than Khulan presence could not be confirmed for sure. A third small occurrence is along the Chinese Mongolian border (Wulate Youqi), Inner Mongolia (Bi 2007) and may be largely a result of Khulan breaching the fence from the Mongolian side. The spatial extant of the two last occurrences is largely unknown.
|♦ Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||280000||♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||280000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||4||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||No|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||500|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||3000|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
- Mongolian Gobi: 41,911 individuals with a stable trend (census dates: 1997, 2010, 2013), autochthonous (Reading et al. 2001 (Transaltai Gobi), Ransom et al. 2012 (Dzungarian Gobi), Norton-Griffith et al. 2013, Norton-Griffith et al. 2015, Buuveibaatar et al. in prep. (southeast Gobi))
- Kalamaili: 3,379-5,318 individuals with an increasing trend (census date: 2006, 2007) autochthonous (Chu et al. 2009)
- Mazongshan: zero to 10 individuals with an unknown trend (census date: 2005, 2006), autochthonous (Bi 2007)
- Wulate Youqi: 180-250 individuals with an unknown trend (census date: 2005, 2006), autochthonous (Bi 2007, Bi pers. comm. 2014)
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||23000||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||No|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||4||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||No|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|