|Scientific Name:||Alburnus alburnus|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer/s:||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats.
|Range Description:||Most of Europe north of Caucasus, Pyrénées and Alps, eastward to Ural and Emba. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic and Aegean basins (except Evros drainage), Italy, Ireland, Great Britain (except southeast), Norway and Scandinavia north of 67°N, Caspian basin south of Volga. Locally introduced in Spain and Italy, in Lake Abrau (Black Sea coast of Russia) and in the Irtysh River.|
Native:Andorra; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Guernsey; Hungary; Italy; Jersey; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Open waters of large lakes and medium to large rivers. Forages close to surface. In winter forms large aggregations in backwaters and other still waters. Spawns in shallow riffles or along stony shores of lakes, occasionally above submerged vegetation.
Gregarious. Spawns for the first time at 2-3 years. Usually spawns only one or two seasons. Spawns in May-August at temperatures above 15°C, 2-4 times at 1-2 week intervals, in early morning. Larvae inhabit littoral zone of rivers and lakes, juveniles leave shores and occupy a pelagic habitat, feeding on plankton, drifting insects or invertebrates fallen on the water surface. Scales were earlier used to make Essence d'Orient, a coating for artificial pearls.
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Alburnus alburnus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 December 2013.|
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