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Eonycteris spelaea

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CHIROPTERA PTEROPODIDAE

Scientific Name: Eonycteris spelaea
Species Authority: (Dobson, 1871)
Common Name(s):
English Dawn Bat, Common Dawn Bat, Common Nectar Bat, Lesser Dawn Bat
Synonym(s):
Eonycteris bernsteini Tate, 1942
Eonycteris spelaea Lawrence, 1939 subspecies glandifera
Eonycteris spelaea Jentink, 1889 subspecies rosenbergii
Eonycteris spelaea Maharadatunkamsi & Kitchener, 1997 subspecies winnyae
Macroglossus spelaeus Dobson, 1871

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Francis, C., Rosell-Ambal, G., Tabaranza, B., Carino, P., Helgen, K., Molur, S. & Srinivasulu, C.
Reviewer(s): Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Cox, N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, it occurs in a number of protected areas, has a tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species ranges widely from northern South Asia, into southern China, and much of Southeast Asia. In South Asia it is known from India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu (Vanitharani et al. 2005) and Uttaranchal) and Nepal (far western Nepal) (Molur et al. 2002). In China it is found in southwestern Guangxi and Yunnan (Smith and Xie 2008). In mainland Southeast Asia, it ranges from Myanmar in the west, through Thailand, Lao PDR, and parts of Viet Nam and Cambodia to Peninsular Malaysia. In insular Southeast Asia, it ranges from Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumba, Sulawesi, Muna, Sanana, Halmahera, Batjan and Tidore), much of the island of Borneo (Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia), the island of Timor (East Timor and Indonesia) to the Philippines where is found throughout the country, except the Batanes/Babuyan region. It has been recorded from Biliran, Bohol, Camotes (Paguntalan pers. comm. 2006), Carabro (Alcala and Alviola 1970), Catanduanes, Cebu, Danjugan (Carino 2004), Ilin (Gonzalez pers. comm. 2006), Leyte, Luzon (Abra, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Pampanga, Rizal, and Sorsogon provinces), Marinduque, Maripipi, Masbate, Mindanao (Agusan del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Lanao del Norte, Misamis Oriental, Misamis Occidental [Ramayla pers. comm.], South Cotabato, Surigao del Norte, and Zamboanga del Sur provinces), Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Polillo, Samar (Gonzalez pers. comm. 2006), Sanga-sanga, Sabtang, Siargao, Sibuyan, Siquijor, Tablas, and Ticao (Paguntalan pers. comm. 2006, Heaney et al. 1998). It occurs from sea level to 1,000 m asl.
Countries:
Native:
Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; India (Andaman Is., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Nicobar Is., Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal); Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Viet Nam
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: More than 4,000 individuals were recorded from Batu caves in Malaysia (Bates and Harrison 1997). The abundance, population size and trends for this species are not known in South Asia although a recent discovery of this species in Kalakkad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu suggests a comparatively rare occurrence compared to the Rousettus leschenaulti (Vanitharani et al. 2005). In the Philippines, this species is often found in colonies of thousands in caves, even in agricultural areas (Heaney et al. 1989; Heideman and Heaney 1989; Lepiten 1995; Rickart et al. 1993). On Palawan Island two populations were found, one exceeding 2,000 individuals and another that probably exceeded 50,000 individuals (Esselstyn et al. 2004).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a cave roosting bat forming compact clusters and cohabits with other bats. It roosts in large groups consisting of thousands of individuals in caves in forested areas. They are more often found in disturbed and agricultural areas, although they do occur in primary forest as well. It is a nectar eating bat with a slow flight, and has adapted to using the flowers of many important agricultural and orchard crops (Smith and Xie 2008). It breeds throughout the year and produces one young (Bates and Harrison 1997). It has been also reported living in small groups from the attics of village huts in northeast India (Tarapada Bhattacharyya pers. comm. June 2005) and Myanmar (Khim Maung Swe pers. comm. January 2000).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this species as a whole. In parts of South Asia it is locally threatened by deforestation, generally resulting from logging operations and the conversion of land to agricultural and other uses (Molur et al. 2002). Cave tourism and lighting is an emerging threat in some caves, as at Borra Caves, Andhra Pradesh (Srinivasulu and Srinivasulu 2003). In China they are often under heavy hunting pressure (Smith and Xie 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is adaptable, and is present in many protected areas throughout its range. No direct conservation measures are currently needed for the species as a whole. In South Asia, this species like most other fruit bats in India is considered a vermin under Schedule V of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. The species has been recorded from protected areas like Kalakkad-Mundunthurai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu (Vanitharani et al. 2005). Populations of this species should be monitored to record changes in abundance and distribution, and lobbying to remove it from vermin category are recommended (Molur et al. 2002). Awareness programmes on ill effects of cave/roost disturbance is recommended (C. Srinivasulu and Bhargavi Srinivasulu pers. comm. September, 2007).

Citation: Francis, C., Rosell-Ambal, G., Tabaranza, B., Carino, P., Helgen, K., Molur, S. & Srinivasulu, C. 2008. Eonycteris spelaea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.
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