|Habitat and Ecology:|
Lumholtz’s Tree-kangaroo is restricted mostly to rainforest habitats, but also extends along riparian vegetation through primarily open forest habitats, and less abundantly in wet sclerophyll forests along the western edge of the Atherton Tablelands (Kanowski et al. 2001a).
Lumholtz’s Tree-kangaroo is mainly nocturnal, but also intermittently active during daylight hours. Its diet mostly comprises foliage from a broad range of tree species and some vines, although Newell (1999a) noted that individual tree-kangaroos each used only a small set of plant species. It is predominantly arboreal.
Lumholtz’s Tree-kangaroos occupy some rainforest fragments (even fragments <20 ha) (Laurance 1990, 1991, 1995, 1997; Laurance et al. 2008), although populations in such fragments may have limited long-term viability. Individuals can disperse through unsuitable habitat, but at such times may be particularly susceptible to predation by dogs, and to being killed by vehicles (Kanowski and Tucker 2002).
Climate change and associated factors have been predicted to have a major detrimental impact on this species, acting directly or indirectly through reduction in rainforest area, reduction in foliar nitrogen concentration, habitat degradation due to increased incidence of severe cyclones, increased incidence of high temperatures, and reduced incidence of free water in mist (Kanowski 2001, 2004; Kanowski et al. 2001; Winter 2004). Williams et al. (2003) predicted that increasing temperatures will result in the significant reduction of the core environment for this species.
Lumholtz’s Tree-kangaroos are mostly solitary within loose social groups, typically with one male and several females. In high quality habitat (fertile recent basalt-derived soils), males occupy home ranges of about 2 ha, which may encompass the non-overlapping and smaller (1-2 ha) ranges of several females (Newell 1999a; Johnson and Newell 2008). Site fidelity is very strong, with individuals reported to stay in their home range even if clearing or disturbance renders it unsuitable (Newell 1999bc).
Breeding is broadly seasonal, with females producing a single young, mostly during the wet season. Age to maturity is two years for females and 4.6 years for males (Johnson and Newell 2008).