|Scientific Name:||Pituophis melanoleucus|
|Species Authority:||(Daudin, 1803)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Pituophis catenifer, P. melanoleucus, P. ruthveni, and P. vertebralis were formerly regarded as conspecific (as. P. melanoleucus), but are separated here (see Rodríguez-Robles and de Jesús-Escobar 2000).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Cox, N., Chanson, J.S. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Reptile Assessment Coordinating Team)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of the fairly large range and number of subpopulations/locations and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||The species' range extends from extreme eastern Louisiana discontinuously east to eastern and southern Florida, and discontinuously north to Kentucky, Virginia, and southern New Jersey in the United States (Ernst and Ernst 2003). Records for Arkansas, Maryland, New York, and Veracruz (Mexico) probably represent introductions (Sweet and Parker 1990) and are not mapped here.|
Present - origin uncertain:Mexico
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is represented by many occurrences or subpopulations. Sweet and Parker (1990) mapped more than 100 collection localities. The number of occurrences or subpopulations with good viability is unknown but undoubtedly is significantly fewer than the number of extant occurrences. The total adult population size is unknown but may exceed 10,000. This snake is relatively common in some areas but appears to be uncommon over most of its range, including all of Florida (Franz 1992, Tennant 1997). Fossorial habits make it appear to be less numerous than it actually is. Its area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size have probably declined over the past several decades, but the rate of decline is probably less than 10% over 10 years or three generations.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Good quality pinesnake habitat appears to be characterized by xeric, pine-dominated or pine-oak (50 to 80% pine) woodland with an open, low understorey established on sandy soils. Longleaf pine sandhills appear to represent critical habitat over much of the southeastern United States. Pinesnakes also require forest openings, with level, well-drained sandy soils and little shrub cover, as nesting and hibernation sites.
This snake is terrestrial, fossorial, and arboreal. It remains underground in cold weather and during the hot midday period in summer (Fitch 1956, Zappalorti et al. 1983, Burger et al. 1988). It may occupy mammal burrows (Schroder 1950, Fitch 1958) or dig its own burrow, aided by a pointed snout and enlarged rostral scale; it is an accomplished burrower in loose soil (Franz 1992). Eggs are deposited in burrows excavated by the female in loose soil (Moore 1893; Zappalorti et al. 1983; Burger and Zappalorti 1986, 1991), spaces beneath large rocks or logs, or possibly small mammal burrows (Ernst and Barbour 1989, Franz 1992).
|Major Threat(s):||In many areas, the habitat of this snake has been destroyed or degraded by human activities.|
|Conservation Actions:||At least several occurrences of this species are in protected areas.|
|Citation:||Hammerson, G.A. 2007. Pituophis melanoleucus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.|
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