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Haploclastus kayi

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA ARTHROPODA ARACHNIDA ARANEAE THERAPHOSIDAE

Scientific Name: Haploclastus kayi
Species Authority: Gravely, 1915
Common Name(s):
English Parambikulam Large Burrowing Spider
Taxonomic Notes: May belong to the genus Thrigmopoeus. The description of the species is based only on the female.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(ii,iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Molur, S., Daniel, B.A. & Siliwal, M.
Reviewer(s): Spector, S. & Mason, T. (Terrestrial Invertebrates Red List Authority)
Justification:
The species is recorded from southern Western Ghats. The habitat other than the protected area where the species occurs is completely degraded due road cutting or expansion, and logging of wood. The pressure on the forest is increasing. It is assumed that the area of habitat in one known location and the inferred range has decreased over the years. The population is fragmented and found in less than five locations. This species is categorized as Endangered because of its small range, its occurrence in less than five fragmented locations and due to continuing decline in area and habitat quality.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Haploclastus kayi is endemic to the Western Ghats of India, this species is found in Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS) in the north and Tenmala in the south at an altitude of 200 to 700 m. The extent of occurrence encompassing known and inferred distribution is less than 5,000 km², while the area of occupancy is less than 2,000 km². In Kerala: Parambikulam WLS in Palakkad district (Gravely 1915, 1935; Manju Siliwal and Sanjay Molur pers. obs.), Tenmala in Thiruvananthapuram district (Binu Arthur and Manju Siliwal pers. obs., Molur and Siliwal 2004); in Tamil Nadu: Indira Gandhi WLS (10°26'2.6"N, 76°50'13.7"E) in Polachi district (Sanjay Molur and Manju Siliwal pers. obs., Molur and Siliwal 2004).
Countries:
Native:
India (Kerala, Tamil Nadu)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Population information is not available. Its distribution is patchy as seen in the case of other ground theraphosids. Further surveys are required to understand abundance and population size in various areas. It is found in less than five locations with severe degree of fragmentation.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The species was found in moist deciduous forest and evergreen rainforest. These spiders prepare burrows on roadside bunds and requires vegetation cover over the bund. Nothing is known of its breeding biology.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat loss and degradation are major threats. The recent records of the species are only from protected areas. Surveys outside Parambikulam and Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuaries did not reveal the presence of this species, which implies its dependence on protection and preservation of habitat. An additional threat to the species is collection by international pet traders, which could have an impact on the population. The two threats in tandem could result in the species' extinction from the known location in the near future.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species occurs in the Parambikulam and Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary in southern India. Further surveys are required to know their presence in other protected areas in southern India. The species requires protection at the national level by being included in the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. It is also important that this species is included under the CITES Appendix II to safeguard it from unsustainable trade.

Citation: Molur, S., Daniel, B.A. & Siliwal, M. 2008. Haploclastus kayi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 September 2014.
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