|Scientific Name:||Etmopterus gracilispinis|
|Species Authority:||Krefft, 1968|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Burgess, G.H., Amorim, A.F., Mancini, P. & Gonzalez, P.|
|Reviewer/s:||Kyne, P.M. & Valenti, S.V. (Shark Red List Authority)|
Etmopterus gracilispinis is a small lanternshark (to at least 33 cm TL) inhabiting the outer continental shelf and upper to middle slopes at depths of 100 to 1,000 m. Also epipelagic and mesopelagic at depths of 70 to 480 m over waters of 2,240 m off Argentina and off South Africa. It has a widespread but disjunct distribution in the western Atlantic and off southern Africa. In the western Atlantic known from off the USA, Suriname, southern Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. Like most other lanternsharks, biology and ecology is poorly known. Some mortality from pelagic and deepwater fisheries is likely to occur across the species' range, for example the species is a rare bycatch in Santos longliners off southern Brazil, and in deepwater fisheries off the USA. However, this mortality is of no immediate threat to the viability of the species given the limited catches in these fisheries, and the widespread benthic, epibenthic, epipelagic and mesopelagic occurrence of the species. As such, the species is assessed as Least Concern. As with other deepwater species though, any future expansion of deepwater fisheries within its range should be closely-monitored.
|Range Description:||E. gracilispinis has a widespread but disjunct distribution off North and South America and southern Africa. Widespread in temperate and subtropical western Atlantic Ocean waters and off South Africa.|
Native:Argentina (Buenos Aires, Chubut, Rio Negro); Brazil (Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo); South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, KwaZulu-Natal); Suriname; United States (Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia); Uruguay
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – western central; Indian Ocean – western
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Large disjunctions between northern and southern Atlantic and southern African distributions may suggest distinct subpopulations.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Benthic or epibenthic on the outer continental shelf and upper to middle slopes at depths of 100 to 1,000 m, but with captures in midwater trawls at depths of 70 to 480 m over waters of 2,240 m off Argentina and off South Africa also indicating an epipelagic and mesopelagic existence (Compagno in prep. a, G.H. Burgess unpub. data).
Like most other lanternsharks, biology and ecology is poorly known, but presumed to be aplacental viviparous (Compagno et al. 2005).
|Major Threat(s):||Some mortality from pelagic and deepwater fisheries is likely to occur across the species range. For example, the species has been recorded as rare (very few specimens, representing a little more than 0% of the catch of elasmobranchs) in the bycatch longliners operating out of Santos City, São Paulo, southern Brazil (Amorin et al. 1998). Also, only limited bycatch off the USA. As such, this mortality is of no immediate threat to the viability of the species given the limited catches in these fisheries, and the widespread benthic, epibenthic, epipelagic and mesopelagic occurrence of the species.|
|Conservation Actions:||None in place. Any future expansion of deepwater fisheries in the area should be closely-monitored.|
|Citation:||Burgess, G.H., Amorim, A.F., Mancini, P. & Gonzalez, P. 2007. Etmopterus gracilispinis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 April 2014.|
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