|Scientific Name:||Zootoca vivipara|
|Species Authority:||(von Jacquin, 1787)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
Lacerta vivipara von Jacquin, 1787
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species is placed in the genus Zootoca, rather than Lacerta, following Mayer and Bischoff (1996). The species contains a number of different lineages, some of which might constitute separate species (see Bea et al. (1990), Surget-Groba et al. (2001, 2002), Mayer and Böhme (2000), and Mayer et al. (2000) for further details).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Agasyan, A., Avci, A., Tuniyev, B., Crnobrnja Isailovic, J., Lymberakis, P., Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, C., Wilkinson, J., Ananjeva, N., Üzüm, N., Orlov, N., Podloucky, R., Tuniyev, S., Kaya, U., Böhme, W., Nettmann, H.K., Crnobrnja Isailovic, J., Joger, U., Cheylan, M., Pérez-Mellado, V., Borczyk, B., Sterijovski, B., Westerström, A. & Schmidt, B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Cox, N., Temple, H.J. (Global Reptile Assessment Coordinating Team) & Böhm, M., Collen, B., Ram, M. (Sampled Red List Index Coordinating Team)|
|Contributor(s):||De Silva, R., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Milligan, H.T., Powney, G., Sears, J., Wearn, O.R., Wilson, P., Wren, S. & Zamin, T.|
Zootoca vivipara is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This extremely widespread species ranges from much of northern, western, central and eastern Europe, across most of northern Asia to China and Japan (Hokkaido Island). In Europe it occurs as scattered populations throughout Britain and Ireland, and through most of Scandinavia, the southern limit of its main distribution running through central France, southeastern Austria, northern Italy, along the Dinaric Alps (in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro and northern Albania), western Hungary , southern and central Romania, northern Moldova, and central Ukraine. Isolated populations occur in northern Spain and southwestern France, and also in Serbia, western Bulgaria and extreme northeastern and northwestern Macedonia. It can be found from sea level up to 2,900 m asl (Bulgaria).|
Native:Albania; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This can be a locally abundant species. Populations have locally declined in parts of its range (e.g., in the Netherlands) (Council of Europe 2003). The lowland populations in Italy (Po plain) are almost extinct.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species has been recorded from a wide variety of habitats including grassland, meadows, humid scrubland, hedgerows, open woodland, woodland edges, peat bogs, stream edges, coastal areas (sea cliffs and sand dunes) and rural gardens.
In most areas the female gives birth to between three and 11 fully formed young. In northern Spain, adjacent France, Austria, Italy and Slovenia, the female lays between one and 13 eggs in a single clutch. In the northern portion of the range and at high altitude it is viviparous, in the southern portion it is oviparous.
|Major Threat(s):||This species is locally threatened in parts of its range by habitat loss resulting from agricultural intensification, urbanization and development of tourism facilities (for example in alpine regions). It is suspected that populations have declined in the U.K. (J. Wilkinson pers. comm.). Some populations of this species that could be specifically distinct might prove to be threatened. This species is categorized as Least Concern in Switzerland (Monney and Meyer 2005).|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed on Annex II of the Bern Convention, and on Annex IV of the European Union Habitat and Species Directive. It is protected by national legislation in some range countries (e.g., Switzerland). It occurs in many protected areas.|
|Citation:||Agasyan, A., Avci, A., Tuniyev, B., Crnobrnja Isailovic, J., Lymberakis, P., Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, C., Wilkinson, J., Ananjeva, N., Üzüm, N., Orlov, N., Podloucky, R., Tuniyev, S., Kaya, U., Böhme, W., Nettmann, H.K., Crnobrnja Isailovic, J., Joger, U., Cheylan, M., Pérez-Mellado, V., Borczyk, B., Sterijovski, B., Westerström, A. & Schmidt, B. 2010. Zootoca vivipara. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.|
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