Euphorbia margalidiana 

Scope: Global, Europe & Mediterranean
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae

Scientific Name: Euphorbia margalidiana Kühbier & Lewej
Common Name(s):
English Spurge of Margadiles Islet
Euphorbia squamigera Loisel. subsp. margalidiana (Kuhbier & Lewej.) O.Bolòs & Vigo
Taxonomic Source(s): The International Plant Names Index. 2012. IPNI. Available at: (Accessed: 17 June).
Taxonomic Notes: The species is closely related to Euphorbia squamigera found in eastern Spain, southern France and Majorca.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D1+2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-17
Assessor(s): Torres, N., Rosselló, J.A., Sáez Goñalons, L. & Fraga i Arquimbau, P.
Reviewer(s): Buira, A. & Allen, D.J.
This species is endemic to largest of the two Ses Margalides Islets, Balearic Islands, Spain. It is assessed as Vulnerable as there are fewer than 1,000 mature individuals, in the single natural and in the nearby introduced population. In addition, it has a very restricted area of occupancy and there are two locations on the basis of the main threat. It is recommended that the genetic diversity of the seed collections is increased and a recovery program is put into action.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to largest of the two Ses Margalides Islets, close to the northwestern coast of Ibiza in the Balearic Islands, Spain (Bañares et al. 2004). It is known only from a single locality, along the rocky shore of the islet. The species was introduced to the islet of Illa Murada, off the coast of Ibiza, east from Ses Margalides. The native extent of occurrence is <1 km2 and area of occupancy is 4 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Spain (Baleares)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:4Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:4
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Unknown
Number of Locations:2
Lower elevation limit (metres):5
Upper elevation limit (metres):10
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is estimated to be between 600 and 700 individuals in Ses Margalides. The overall population is estimated to be fewer than 1,000 individuals. The number of mature individuals is not known. The population trend is thought to be stable. In Illa Murada, where introduced, the population seems to be increasing.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:600-1000Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:No
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:A succulent shrub that grows up to 1 m in height in the cracks of limestone cliffs in coastal areas; it is found just above the area under salt-spray influence, between 5 and 10 m asl. It is a perennial plant that requires good light and high temperatures. It is found with few species, such as as Lavatera arborea and Limonium minutum.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Plants are available under this name in the ornamental plant trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): An increasingly dry environment and the risk of the collapse of the cliffs where this plant occurs present a threat. Monitoring this species is difficult because the cliffs are unstable and dangerous. On the basis of this threat, there are two locations.

The reef limestone in which it lives is heavily cracked and very exposed to marine storms, especially the north and north-west of the island. Since 1980 there has been growing use of this area by gulls who use it for roosting and nesting, thus trampling upon the limited space available for settlement. Competition is with perennial species with interspecies that inhabit the island, especially Lavatera arborea. The presence of herbivores is not a very pressing danger given the difficulty of access to people and animals.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed in Annex II of the Ministerial Decree 22112 (1984) as a species of special national interest to be protected in the Balearic Islands. It is illegal to undertake any activity that could damage this plant. The species is listed in Annex I (in danger of extinction) of Decree 439/90, which guarantees its protection in its native habitat. Internationally, it is included in Appendix I of the Bern Convention and as a priority species in Annexes II and IV of the EU Habitats Directive. The species was assessed as CR (B1ab(v)+2ab(v)) in Spain (Bañares et al. 2010) and globally (Vicens Fandos and Mus 2006). The species was also assessed as 'Critically Endangered', one of the top 50 most threatened Mediterranean island plants (de Montmollin and Strahm 2005).

Between 2005 and 2007 plants and seeds of the species were implanted on Murada Islet, which has similar environmental conditions and is located in the same area. Monitoring activities on the survival and recruitment rate of seedlings provided encouraging results. For this reason, from 2010 periodically until today even more propagation units have been introduced in order to achieve a viable population. A similar action carried out on the cliffs of the northeastern coast of Murada was totally unsuccessful. Since 2009 an ad hoc recovery plan (Resolution 14 July of the Government of the Balearic Islands) has been carried out.The species is in cultivation in several places including the botanic gardens of Sóller (Majorca) and Marimurtra (Barcelona) in Spain. In addition seeds are conserved in seedbanks. Currently studies on the genetic variability of material held ex situ are being undertaken.

Access to the site where the species grows should be prohibited. The Government of the Balearic Islands is currently conducting a feasibility study to introduce this species to another islet, but to date there is insufficient data to make recommendations for benign introductions to other sites.

The species is cultivated in various places with seeds preserved in a seed bank. Currently its genetic diversity is been checked, to allow for the design of a recovery plan.

Citation: Torres, N., Rosselló, J.A., Sáez Goñalons, L. & Fraga i Arquimbau, P. 2017. Euphorbia margalidiana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T61649A3106569. . Downloaded on 15 October 2018.
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