|Scientific Name:||Centaurea gymnocarpa|
|Species Authority:||Moris & De Not.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered D ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Strahm, W. & de Montmollin, B. (Mediterranean Island Plants Red List Authority)|
The population size is estimated to be less than 250 individuals. The decline in this small population is not yet significant enough to classify this species as Critically Endangered, as only one subpopulation, of 20 individuals, is under threat.
|Range Description:||Centaurea gymnocarpa is endemic to the Italian island of Capraia, a small island which is part of the Tuscan Archipelago.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population size is estimated to be less than 250 individuals. Eight subpopulations have been identified. The one threatened subpopulation is composed of less than 20 individuals, while the seven others include more then 20 individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
It is a herbaceous species that colonizes cracks and fissures of rock faces, growing on acid rocks. It is found in association with Linaria capraia and other endemic species such as Silene badaroi and Galium caprarium.
C. gymnocarpa belongs to the group known as the "cineraria" group. This group probably was once a single species when the land masses were united, but as islands were formed, new species evolved on each island. This means that today there are a number of closely related species of Centaurea in the Mediterranean growing on rocky seaward cliffs, all probably related to a common ancestor.
|Major Threat(s):||The subpopulation, situated between Paese and Porto, is severely threatened by competition from two invasive plants: Carpobrotus acinaciformis and Senecio angulatus. These two species in the last years have been expanding in Capraia, but do not yet grow in the other areas where C. gymnocarpa occurs, which are for the most part far away from areas of human habitation.|
Actions in Place
Legally: This species is protected by the law 56/2000, which is a law guiding biodiversity conservation in the Tuscan region, and is quite similar to the EC Habitats Directive. Under this law, it is forbidden to collect any species in this genus.
In situ: Four of the eight known subpopulations occur in the Tuscan Archipelago National Park. The Park includes a protected terrestrial area of just under 18,000 ha, and a marine protected area of approximately 60,000 ha (making it the largest European marine park). The objective of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park is to protect this fragile natural environment, which is very rich in cultural and scientific values.
Ex situ: The species is cultivated in the Botanical Garden of Florence.
Monitoring of all subpopulations is needed, and a programme to remove invasive alien plants which threaten one of the subpopulations needs to be undertaken. Efforts to ensure that these alien species do not start growing in the other areas where this species is found are also very important. Once the alien species have been eradicated, a re-introduction programme will be planned, using specimens propagated from the threatened population.
|Citation:||Foggi, B. 2006. Centaurea gymnocarpa. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 June 2013.|
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