Anthemis glaberrima 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Asterales Asteraceae

Scientific Name: Anthemis glaberrima (Rech.f.) Greuter
Ammanthus glaberrimus Rech.f

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ac(iv)+2ac(iv) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-03-03
Assessor(s): Fournaraki, C. & Thanos, C.A.
Reviewer(s): Delipetrou, P., Bazos, I., de Montmollin, B. & Bilz, M.
Contributor(s): Latroú, G.
Anthemis glaberrima is endemic to the islets of Agria Gramvousa and Imeri Gramvousa near Crete. The area of occupancy and extent of occurrence are both smaller than 10 km². The populations are stable but as this is an annual species, extreme fluctuations are possible.
The subpopulation of Imeri Gramvousa is relatively isolated and not threatened by human impact but the subpopulation of Agria Gramvousa is threatened by grazing and sea pollution. This species is therefore assessed as Critically Endangered.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Anthemis glaberrima is endemic to the islets of Agria Gramvousa and Imeri Gramvousa, situated at the extreme northwest tip of the island of Crete. The distribution area is very limited and the area of occupancy and extent of occurrence are both smaller than 10 km².
Countries occurrence:
Greece (Kriti)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:4-10
Number of Locations:2
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population at Agria Gramvousa has 150,000 – 200,000 individuals at an area of 3 ha and the population of Imeri Gramvousa hosts c. 500 individuals at an area of 0.3 ha. The population counts are based on a 2-3 year assessment. It is annual species so extreme fluctuations are possible.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:150500-200500
Extreme fluctuations:YesPopulation severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:An annual species that grows on littoral rocks.

Rich in endemics, the islet of Agria Gramvousa is one of the few islets that have never been inhabited by domestic or wild ungulates such as goats or sheep. Any introduction of herbivores could threaten the natural balance of this island's vegetation and lead to the extinction of some plant species. A. glaberrima belongs to the taxonomic group Ammanthus which includes several species (such as Anthemis ammanthus, A. filicaulis and A. tomentella) endemic to the southern islands in the Aegean Sea.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The subpopulation of Imeri Gramvousa is relatively isolated and not threatened by human impact (tourists visiting the islet in summer). The subpopulation of Agria Gramvousa is apparently threatened by grazing and also probably by sea pollution (deposition of tar and waste from the sea). Invasive species are potentially a serious threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed as priority species on Annex II of the Habitats Directive and under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). It is protected in Greece by the Presidential Decree 67/81 and listed in the National Red Data Book as Critically Endangered (CR) B2ac(iv) (Fournaraki and Thanos in: Phitos et al. 2009).

Actions in Place
In situ: a Micro-Reserve of 4.4 ha has been established on Agria Gramvousa islet. There has also been an intensive awareness campaign for the education of the local authorities and the general public. The plant is included in a Natura 2000 site (GR 4340001) which gives it indirect protection.
Ex situ: Seeds are stored the Seed Bank of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania.

Actions Needed
Given the number of species endemic to Agria Gramvousa, the islet should be designated as a nature reserve, and a management plan put in place to prevent the introduction of herbivores and invasive plants.

Citation: Fournaraki, C. & Thanos, C.A. 2011. Anthemis glaberrima. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T61617A12524117. . Downloaded on 22 May 2018.
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