|Scientific Name:||Petroleuciscus borysthenicus|
|Species Authority:||(Kessler, 1859)|
Leuciscus borysthenicus (Kessler, 1859)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species however some populations are declining sharply due to drainage of flood-plains and channelization of river beds but not at a rate to qualify the species for a threatened or Near Threatened Category.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Western, northern and eastern Black Sea and Sea of Azov basins, from Bulgaria clockwise to Kizil Irmak drainage in northern-central Turkey (missing in Don); Aegean Sea basin, from Struma drainage eastward in Europe; northwestern Turkey. In lower reaches of rivers and coastal lakes, but in Dniepr up to Seim and Desna systems.|
Native:Belarus; Bulgaria; Georgia; Greece; Moldova; Romania; Russian Federation; Turkey; Ukraine
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Abundant, but locally declining.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Lowland rivers, lower reaches of montane rivers, limans, lakes, deltas, backwaters with moderate to no current. Prefers warm water with temperatures up to 30-32°C. Quite resistant to low oxygen concentrations, sometimes in marshes and water bodies with dense vegetation. A freshwater species, but tolerant of the brackish waters of limans. Prefers sand, sand-mud or mud bottom. Prefers shallow places with slow current along banks, in backwaters, in small lakes and similar calm-water sites.
Lives up to eight years. Spawns for the first time at 2-3 years, males may spawn at one year. Forms spawning groups of up to 150 individuals. Spawns in April-June at 12-28°C, in 0.1-1.0 m deep clear water, over sandy or slightly muddy bottom. Females lay 2-3 portions of adhesive eggs on and amidst aquatic plants each spawning period. Usually stays in groups of 5-30 individuals in vegetation at bottom but sometimes near water surface, under floating leaves or other objects. Does not migrate but moves in winter to deeper places. Feeds mainly on insects and their larvae, also plankton, benthic invertebrates and algae.
|Major Threat(s):||Locally threatened by drainage of flood-plains and channelization of river beds.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Petroleuciscus borysthenicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T61395A12461180. . Downloaded on 08 February 2016.|
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