|Scientific Name:||Cyprinella formosa|
|Species Authority:||(Girard, 1856)|
Cyprinella santamariae (Evermann & Goldsborough, 1902)
Moniana formosa Girard, 1856
Notropis santamariae Evermann & Goldsborough, 1902
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence may be less than 20,000 sq km, area of occupancy is less than 2000 sq km, the distribution can be regarded as severely fragmented, and there is probably a continuing decline. Further information on area of occupancy might reveal that this species qualifies for Endangered status.
|Range Description:||Historical range encompassed northern Mexico (Sonora, Chihuahua), southeastern Arizona (San Bernardino Creek, Black Draw Creek, and associated artesian wells and cienegas, Rio Yaqui basin; extirpated by 1970), and southwestern New Mexico (Mimbres River; disappeared after 1951) (Sublette et al. 1990, Miller 2005). Mexico contains almost all of the historical range, which extended into small portions of the United States. Current range in Mexico includes the Guzman basin (including rios Casas Grandes, Santa Maria, and del Carmen), and Yaqui, Bavicora, and Sauz basins (current status in Sauz Basin is unknown). Elevational range in Mexico is 800-1,700 meters (2,625-5,580 feet), and historically in Arizona the species occurred at approximately 1,158 meters (3,800 feet) (Arizona Game and Fish Department 1994). The species has been reintroduced and is thriving in refugia on the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona (USFWS 1994). Stocks occur also at the Dexter National Fish Hatchery & Technology Center, Dexter, New Mexico. See USFWS (1994).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
TNHC (1996) mapped 15 locations, including 2 in New Mexico, 1 in Arizona, and 2 in northern Mexico. Miller (2005) mapped about 4 dozen collection sites (representing at least two dozen distinct occurrences) in Mexico but did not comment on current status. Extirpated in Arizona by 1970; reintroduced into 4 small ponds in 1990; reintroduced populations are breeding and in excellent condition (S. Schwartz pers. comm. 1997). Extirpated in New Mexico.
Total adult population size is unknown.
Extirpated from the United States in 1969-1970, but as of 1991, the species apparently still occurred in most of historical range in Mexico. USFWS (1990) categorized the status as "declining," and USFWS (1994) reported the species as declining in Mexico; current trend in Mexico is uncertain. Reintroduced in Arizona in 1990 (Arizona Game and Fish Department 1994); populations stable (S. Schwartz pers. comm. 1997).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This is a mid-water-column species that inhabits pools or riffles of medium-sized, clear streams, creeks, spring-fed pools, and artesian-fed ditches and, exceptionally, ephemeral lakes (Miller 2005), over sand, gravel, or boulder substrate (Miller and Simon 1943). It remains near but rarely within beds of plants or other cover along pond margins (USFWS 1994). Streams typically are intermittent and subject to seasonal drying and sudden flooding; individuals survive dry periods in permanent pools. The species is thriving in pond habitats on the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona (USFWS 1994).
Eggs are laid in a nest scooped out of gravel by males in shallow, fast-flowing water.
|Use and Trade:||This species is not utilized.|
This species' demise in New Mexico probably was due to ephemeral stream flows resulting from drought conditions and diversion of water for agricultural purposes (Sublette et al. 1990). It was extirpated from San Bernardino Creek, Arizona, when the creek dried up as a result of groundwater pumping; remaining habitat was further degraded by livestock. Leasing of geothermal resources in the San Bernardino Creek area potentially threatens water supply and quality.
Surveys in 1979 found populations of this species to be seriously depleted in the Mexican portion of the historical range (Matthews and Moseley 1990); the decline was due to water development for agriculture, chemical and sewage pollution, and impacts of non-native species (USFWS 1994).
Populations are vulnerable to extirpation or reduction as a result of interactions with introduced non-native species. Introduced Red Shiner (Notropis lutrensis) appears to be reducing populations of the Beautiful Shiner through competition and interbreeding. A potential problem is predation by introduced bullfrogs (Arizona Game and Fish Department 1994).
Jelks et al. (2008) categorized this species as Threatened due to (1) present or threatened destruction, modification, or reduction of habitat or range and (2) other natural or anthropogenic factors that affect existence, including impacts of nonindigenous organisms, hybridization, competition, and/or predation.
Better information is needed on current distribution, abundance, and trends in Mexico.
Securing habitat and water sources is a major management need (USFWS 1994).
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Cyprinella formosa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 September 2014.|