|Scientific Name:||Squalius cephalus|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer/s:||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats.
|Range Description:||North, Baltic, northern Black, White, Barents and Caspian Sea basins, Atlantic basin southward to Adour drainage (France), Great Britain north to 56°N, Scandinavia: southern Finland, Sweden north to about Stockholm. Mediterranean basin from Var to Hérault (possibly Aude) (France) drainages. Introduced elsewhere. Naturally absent from Italy and Adriatic basin.|
Native:Andorra; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Most abundant in small rivers and large streams of barbel zone with riffles and pools. Also along shores of slow-flowing lowland rivers, even in very small mountain streams. Also in large lakes, undertaking spawning migrations to inflowing streams. Spawns in fast-flowing water above gravel bottom, rarely among submerged vegetation.
Juveniles are gregarious, adults more solitary. Lives up to 15 years, females longer than males. Males reproduce for the first time at 2-4 years, females at 4-6. Maturity is influenced by environmental factors and individuals may mature much later. Spawns in May-August, when temperature rises above 12°C. Females spawn more than once during a season. Individual females spawn with several males. Males assemble at spawning grounds and follow ripe females, often with much splashing, to shallow riffles. Females deposit the sticky eggs into the gravel. Feeding larvae and juveniles inhabit very shallow shoreline habitats. Feeds on a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial animal and plant material. Large individuals become predominantly piscivorous. Frequently forms fertile hybrids with Alburnus alburnus.
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Squalius cephalus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 April 2014.|
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