Squalius cephalus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae

Scientific Name: Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Chub
Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Taxonomic Notes: Recent change of genus from Leuciscus to Squalius (Zardoya and Doadrio 1999, Sanjur et al. 2003).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-02-24
Assessor(s): Freyhof, J.
Reviewer(s): Smith, K.
Contributor(s): Kottelat, M.
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:North, Baltic, northern Black, White, Barents and Caspian Sea basins, Atlantic basin southward to Adour drainage (France), Great Britain north to 56°N, Scandinavia: southern Finland, Sweden north to about Stockholm. Mediterranean basin from Var to Hérault (possibly Aude) (France) drainages. Introduced elsewhere. Naturally absent from Italy and Adriatic basin.
Countries occurrence:
Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Habitat:
Most abundant in small rivers and large streams of barbel zone with riffles and pools. Also along shores of slow-flowing lowland rivers, even in very small mountain streams. Also in large lakes, undertaking spawning migrations to inflowing streams. Spawns in fast-flowing water above gravel bottom, rarely among submerged vegetation.

Juveniles are gregarious, adults more solitary. Lives up to 15 years, females longer than males. Males reproduce for the first time at 2-4 years, females at 4-6. Maturity is influenced by environmental factors and individuals may mature much later. Spawns in May-August, when temperature rises above 12°C. Females spawn more than once during a season. Individual females spawn with several males. Males assemble at spawning grounds and follow ripe females, often with much splashing, to shallow riffles. Females deposit the sticky eggs into the gravel. Feeding larvae and juveniles inhabit very shallow shoreline habitats. Feeds on a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial animal and plant material. Large individuals become predominantly piscivorous. Frequently forms fertile hybrids with Alburnus alburnus.
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No major threats known.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No information.

Citation: Freyhof, J. 2014. Squalius cephalus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T61205A19009224. . Downloaded on 23 September 2018.
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