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Cynopterus brachyotis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CHIROPTERA PTEROPODIDAE

Scientific Name: Cynopterus brachyotis
Species Authority: (Müller, 1838)
Common Name(s):
English Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat, Common Short-nosed Fruit Bat, Lesser Short-nosed Fruit Bat
Synonym(s):
Cynopterus brachysoma Dobson, 1871
Cynopterus marginatus Dobson, 1873 variety andamanensis
Cynopterus marginatus Gray, 1871 variety ceylonensis
Pachysoma brachyotis Muller, 1838
Taxonomic Notes: The taxonomic situation throughout the range is confused and future taxonomic revision may reveal that there are a number of cryptic species allocated to Cynopterus brachyotis. Earlier included angulatus Miller, 1898 (Ellerman and Morrison-Scott 1951). The taxon brachysoma Dobson, 1871 is sometimes included under Cynopterus sphinx (Vahl 1797) (Bates and Harrison 1997). Reviewed by Hill and Thonglongya (1972), Kitchener and Maharadatunkamsi (1991) and Mapatuna et al. (2002). Simmons (2005) lists brachysoma Dobson, 1871 and ceylonensis Gray, 1871 under this taxon (Srinivasulu et al. in press). Often considered to include Cynopterus luzoniensis, but here considered separate.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Csorba, G., Bumrungsri, S., Francis, C., Bates, P., Gumal, M., Kingston, T., Molur, S. & Srinivasulu, C.
Reviewer(s): Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Cox, N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern because, although it is seldom recorded, it has a relatively wide distribution, is tolerant of a broad range of habitats, has a presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
History:
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This widespread species ranges from South Asia, through parts of southern China to parts of Southeast Asia. In South Asia, this species is presently known from Bangladesh (Sylhet division) (Sarker and Sarker 2005; Srinivasulu and Srinivasulu 2005), India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal) and Sri Lanka (North Central, Uva and Western provinces) (Srinivasulu et al. in press; Molur et al. 2002). In southern China, it has been recorded from Guangdong, with possible records from Xizang (Medog) and southern Yunnan (Wang 2002; Smith and Xie 2008). In continental Southeast Asia, it is known from southern Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Viet Nam (identity of records from northern Viet Nam need verification), Cambodia (known only from Phnom Phen [G. Csorba pers. comm.]), and Peninsular Malaysia. In Insular Southeast Asia, it is known from the islands of Sumatra and Java (Indonesia), Borneo (Indonesia and Malaysia only), the island of Sulawesi (Indonesia), the island of Timor (East Timor and Indonesia), the Talaud Islands (Indonesia) and Ternate Island (Indonesia). It might be present on the island of Palawan in the Philippines, but this requires confirmation.
Countries:
Native:
Cambodia; China; India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu); Indonesia (Sulawesi, Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Viet Nam
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: In northeast India, the population is stable and it is common but not as abundant as Cynopterus sphinx (Tarapada Bhattacharyya pers. comm. June 2005), while in southern India it is rare (C. Srinvasulu pers. comm. September, 2007). In Southeast Asia, it is generally locally abundant and most common in disturbed and residential areas, however, is locally rare in Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand (Campbell et al. 2004).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species can be found from habitats ranging from orchards, gardens to forested tracts. It roosts in palms especially seed clusters of palms either solitary or in small groups of a few individuals in rural and urban landscapes and in forested areas. Bears a single young after a gestation period of 105-120 days (Bates and Harrison 1997). In South Asia, the species is believed to be more restricted to higher elevations when compared to C. sphinx, making it specifically a hill forest species.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this species as a whole. In South Asia, this species is locally threatened by deforestation, generally resulting from logging operations and the conversion of land to agricultural and other uses (Molur et al. 2002).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Other than further taxonomic studies, no conservation actions are currently needed for the species as a whole. It is present in many protected areas throughout its range. In South Asia, this species like most other fruit bats in India is considered a vermin under Schedule V of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. The species has been recorded from protected areas in India like Nagarhole National Park in Karnataka and Kalakkad-Mundunthurai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu, and in Hakgalla National Park in Sri Lanka.

Citation: Csorba, G., Bumrungsri, S., Francis, C., Bates, P., Gumal, M., Kingston, T., Molur, S. & Srinivasulu, C. 2008. Cynopterus brachyotis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 17 December 2014.
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