|Scientific Name:||Squatina dumeril|
|Species Authority:||Lesueur, 1818|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Heupel, M.R. & Carlson, J.K.|
|Reviewer(s):||Cavanagh, R.D. & Kyne, P.M.|
Squatina dumeril is found in the western Atlantic in depths up to 1,290 m, but is seasonally recorded in shallower regions. This species is not known to be targeted or utilized, but is taken in trawl fisheries as accidental bycatch although no data is available. There is currently no information available on the life history of this species (beyond a limited description of its reproductive biology) and its full distribution is not defined, therefore it is listed as Data Deficient until more information is available. Studies are currently underway and this assessment should be reviewed in the near future.
|Range Description:||Found along the Atlantic coast of the United States from southern New England to Florida (Massachusetts, New York, Rhode Island, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, south to the Florida Keys) and the Gulf of Mexico (Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas and the Mexican coast). Reported but unconfirmed from Cuba, Nicaragua, Jamaica and Venezuela (Castro 1983, Compagno in prep. a).|
Native:Jamaica; Mexico (Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán); Nicaragua; United States (Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia); Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||An apparently common but largely unknown species of temperate and subtropical waters of the Western North Atlantic continental shelf and slope. Typically found on or near the bottom from close inshore down to depths of 1,290 m, however, most records are from 40 to 250 m.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Little is known about this species. It is found seasonally in shallower water. Off the eastern United States it appears to move inshore in the spring and summer, and disappears, apparently into deeper water in other seasons.
Maturity is probably reached around 90 to 107 cm TL. Reproductive mode is aplacental viviparous with only the left ovary functional. Pupping occurs in June or July with pups measuring 28 to 30 cm TL at birth. Litters contain up to 25 pups. Birth usually occurs at depth (~20 to 30 m).
Eats small bottom fishes (flounders, skates and other bottom fishes), crustaceans and bivalves.
Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length): Female: 90 to 105 cm TL, median length 83.5 cm FL (Baremore and Carlson 2004); Male: 92 to 107 cm TL, median length 88.7 cm FL (Baremore and Carlson 2004).
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): 152 cm TL.
Size at birth: 28 to 30 cm TL.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: Up to 25/litter (Compagno in prep. a); 8 (+/- 1.82) pups (Baremore and Carlson 2004).
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.
Accidental bycatch in trawl fisheries. In the Gulf of Mexico, Angel Sharks occur with relative frequency as bycatch in trawl fisheries targeting butterfish (Carlson, pers obs.) and it is possible they occur as bycatch in other fisheries. Note that S. dumeril is often found in deeper waters where shrimp trawling effort is low.
Not known to be utilised.
|Conservation Actions:||In Atlantic US waters, angel sharks are currently listed as prohibited under the Federal Management for Atlantic tunas, swordfish and sharks, as a precautionary management measure.|
|Citation:||Heupel, M.R. & Carlson, J.K. 2006. Squatina dumeril. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 March 2015.|