|Scientific Name:||Etmopterus sentosus|
|Species Authority:||Bass, D'Aubrey & Kistnasamy, 1976|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Family Etmopteridae has been elevated out of Squalidae.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Cavanagh, R.D., Human, B., Heupel, M.R. & Simpfendorfer, C.A. (Shark Red List Authority)|
Etmopterus sentosus is a small (27 cm total length), deepwater (200 to 500 m) species endemic to the southwestern Indian Ocean (off the east coast of South Africa, Mozambique, Madagascar, Kenya and Tanzania). Biology is essentially unknown. This species is subject to limited bycatch fishing mortality off South Africa and the situation is assumed to be similar throughout the rest of its range. Thus it is assumed to be of Least Concern at the present time, although like many deepwater chondrichthyan species, more information on biology, ecology and importance in fisheries are required. Any expanding deepwater fisheries in the region need to be carefully monitored and managed.
|Range Description:||Endemic to southwestern Indian Ocean: east coast of Natal, Mozambique, Madagascar, Kenya and Tanzania. It has been reported as relatively common off Mozambique.|
Native:Kenya; Madagascar; Mozambique; South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal); Tanzania, United Republic of
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – western
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||No knowledge of population size or structure; limited range suggests single population (no subpopulations).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Inhabits upper continental slope in depths of 200 to 500 m, on or near bottom. Little life history information currently available. Maximum length unknown. Size at birth unknown but a near term fetus reported 5.7 cm. Immature males recorded at 22 to 27 cm and adults at 22 to 27 cm. Immature females recorded at 22 to 26 cm and adult at 25 to 27 cm.
Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length): Female: 25 to 27 cm; Male: 22 to 27 cm.
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): 27 cm or longer.
Size at birth: >5.7 cm.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: Unknown.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.
Of no importance for fisheries because of its small size. No apparent threats, some deepwater fishing mortality from bycatch but this is known to be limited off South Africa and the situation is assumed to be similar throughout the rest of its range although further study is required.
None known, probably discarded (probably too small to be utilised).
|Conservation Actions:||None in place. Like many deepwater chondrichthyan species more information on biology, ecology and importance in fisheries are required. Any expanding deepwater fisheries in the region (which could impact its habitat and population) need to be carefully monitored and managed.|
|Citation:||Burgess, G.H. 2006. Etmopterus sentosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 July 2014.|
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