|Scientific Name:||Etmopterus bigelowi|
|Species Authority:||Shirai & Tachikawa, 1993|
Etmopterus sp. A subspecies
|Taxonomic Notes:||Previously confused with the similar but smaller Etmopterus pusillus until described as a distinct species by Shirai and Tachikawa (1993) (Compagno in prep a).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Horodysky, A.Z. & Burgess, G.H.|
|Reviewer(s):||Kyne, P.M., Cavanagh, R.D., Heupel, M. & Simpfendorfer, C. (Shark Red List Authority)|
A widespread, relatively small (to at least 67 cm total length) lanternshark recorded from various localities in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. Probably far more widely distributed than is presently known. Found at depths of 163 m to at least 1,000 m, as well as near the surface in open waters of 110 to 700 m depth. Biology is virtually unknown. Not targeted but probably a discarded bycatch in some deepwater fishing activities. Given its very wide geographical and bathymetrical distribution and apparent lack of significant threats, it is considered here to be Least Concern, however like many deepwater chondrichthyan species, more information on biology, ecology and importance in fisheries are required. It is particularly important to assess regional bycatch levels of this species, particularly as global deepwater fisheries continue to expand.
|Range Description:||Widespread distribution throughout various localities in the Eastern and Western Atlantic, Eastern and Western Indian, and Eastern, Western and Northern Pacific Oceans. Probably occurs at more locations than presently recorded.|
Native:Angola (Angola); Argentina; Australia (New South Wales, Tasmania, Western Australia); Benin; Cameroon; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Ghana; Japan; Liberia; Namibia; Nigeria; Peru; South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Northern Cape Province, Western Cape); Suriname; Togo; United States (Louisiana); Uruguay
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – western central; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Distributed in diverse habitats, being found on the continental shelves and slopes, island slopes, and submarine ridges and seamounts, at depths of 163 to 1,000 m+. Also partially epipelagic, occurring near the surface in open waters of 110 to 700 m depth (Compagno in prep a).
Presumably aplacental yolksac viviparous, but biology is virtually unknown. Reaches at least 67 cm TL (Compagno in prep a).
Life history parameters
Age at maturity: Female: probably immature at 19 to 50 cm TL and adult at 50 to 65 cm TL; Male: Immature at 16 to 40 cm TL and adult at 40 to 67 cm TL.
Size at maturity (total length cm): Unknown.
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): At least 67 cm TL.
Size at birth: Uncertain, probably below 16 cm TL.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: Unknown.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.
This species is not targeted, but is probably a discarded bycatch in some deepwater demersal and pelagic fisheries, particularly trawls (Compagno in prep a). Specific information is not available.
None known, probably discarded (probably too small to be utilised).
|Conservation Actions:||None in place. Like many deepwater chondrichthyan species more information on biology, ecology and importance in fisheries are required. Deepwater fisheries need to be carefully monitored and managed.|
|Citation:||Horodysky, A.Z. & Burgess, G.H. 2006. Etmopterus bigelowi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 March 2015.|