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Mustelus sinusmexicanus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA CHONDRICHTHYES CARCHARHINIFORMES TRIAKIDAE

Scientific Name: Mustelus sinusmexicanus
Species Authority: Heemstra, 1997
Common Name(s):
English Gulf Of Mexico Smoothhound
French Emissole
Spanish Musola
Taxonomic Notes: This recently described Gulf of Mexico endemic has sometimes been mistaken for the sympatric Mustelus canis and M. norrisi in its limited offshore range (Heemstra, 1997). It differs from both species in its high-crowned teeth, lower vertebral counts, usually in having tricuspidate lateral trunk denticles (unicuspidate in most individuals of M. canis and M. norrisi), and in having buccopharyngial denticles confined to the tongue and palate anterior to the spiracles. It also differs from M. norrisi in being larger, having longer labial furrows, having the first dorsal base possibly more anteriorly situated relative to the pectoral and pelvic bases, and by having a less falcate pectoral fin and ventral caudal lobe in adults. It apparently has little bathymetric overlap with M. norrisi, which in the Gulf of Mexico is mostly found in shallower water less than 55 m deep. It additionally differs from M. canis in having a somewhat shorter snout (Compagno in prep b).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2006
Date Assessed: 2006-01-31
Assessor(s): Carlisle, A.B.
Reviewer(s): Cavanagh, R.D., Stevens, J., Pollard, D. & Dudley, S. (Shark Red List Authority)
Justification:
This recently described shark is endemic to the Gulf of Mexico, found on offshore continental shelf and uppermost slopes at depths of 36 to 229 m, with most records between 42 to 91 m. Very little is known about the biology and ecology of this species. It has a litter size of eight and a maximum length of about 140 cm. Interest to fisheries is limited. Probable bycatch of offshore line and trawl fisheries for sharks, bony fishes, and crustaceans. Basic research is required on this newly described species to learn more about its biology, ecology, and population dynamics. It cannot be assessed beyond Data Deficient at the present time.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Panama City, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, USA, also Bay of Campeche, Mexico (Compagno in prep b).
Countries:
Native:
Mexico (Campeche, Tabasco, Veracruz); United States (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Unknown.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Found in offshore continental shelf and uppermost slope at depths of 36 to 229 m, with most records between 42 to 91 m. Very little known about its biology and ecology. Apparently it is viviparous (placental viviparous), and has a litter size of eight. Maximum total length is about 140 cm, and size at birth is about 39 to 43 cm. Males are immature at 70 cm and mature at about 80 cm, with an 83 cm male being mature; females at 118 to 140 cm were mature (Compagno in prep b).

Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length): Female: female specimens of 118 to 140 cm were mature (Compagno in prep b); Male: ~80 cm (Heemstra 1997).
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): 140 cm (Heemstra 1997).
Size at birth: 39 to 43 cm (Heemstra 1997).
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: 8 (Compagno in prep b).
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Interest to fisheries limited. Probably a bycatch of offshore line and trawl fisheries for sharks, bony fishes, and crustaceans, but utilization uncertain (Compagno in prep. b).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: None currently in place. This is a newly described species and as a result virtually nothing is known about it. It is important to conduct basic research on it in order to learn more about its biology, ecology, and population dynamics.

Citation: Carlisle, A.B. 2006. Mustelus sinusmexicanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 October 2014.
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