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Chimaera phantasma

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA CHONDRICHTHYES CHIMAERIFORMES CHIMAERIDAE

Scientific Name: Chimaera phantasma
Species Authority: Jordan & Snyder, 1900
Common Name(s):
English Silver Chimaera
Taxonomic Notes: Synonyms = Chimaera pseudomonstrosa Fang & Wang, 1932 (Fowler 1941, Lindberg and Legeza 1959); Chimaera sp. E [Last and Stevens, 1994].

Chimaera phantasma is distinguished from all other members of the genus by a lateral line canal that is undulated along the entire length of the trunk as well as preopercular and oral lateral line canals originating separately from the infraorbital canal with their origins separated by a distinct space (Didier 2003). Chimaera sp. E [Last and Stevens, 1994] possesses these characters and is morphologically indistinguishable from Chimaera phantasma. The discovery of C. phantasma off Western Australia extends the range of this species into the Indian Ocean.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2006
Date Assessed: 2006-01-31
Assessor(s): Dagit, D.D.
Reviewer(s): Kyne, P.M., Fowler, S.L. & Compagno, L.J.V. (Shark Red List Authority)
Justification:
Chimaera phantasma has long known to be widespread in the Northwest Pacific including the Japanese Archipelago, Philippines, Korea, China and Taiwan where it occurs on the shelf and upper slope at depths of 20 to 550 m (generally 500 m) and in the Eastern Indian off Western Australia (WA) (440 to 520 m). Nothing is known of population size or structure, but collection records indicate the species is widespread and relatively abundant throughout parts of the NW Pacific. Oviparous, although details of reproduction or spawning not available, but may spawn in relatively shallow water in the NW Pacific based on the presence of large numbers of hatchlings and small juveniles in collections from this region. Only adults and subadults have been collected off New Caledonia and the species may be uncommon in that area although off WA it is reported as being abundant. Chimaera phantasma is taken in local small scale and subsistence trawl fisheries as well as commercial fisheries in parts of Asia. It is landed and utilised for human consumption in Taiwan and, given the intensity of fishing operations in large parts of its Asian range, likely other parts of the NW Pacific. The effects of fishing practices throughout the NW Pacific are unknown for this species although its abundance in some regions may suggest that current fishing practices may not be significantly impacting the population at this time. Chimaera phantasma is not known to be commercially fished or collected as bycatch in trawl fisheries off New Caledonia, perhaps due to its depth range which may be at or below the limit of many, if not most, trawl fishery operations in that region. Fishing pressure on the species' area of occurrence off WA is minimal. Landing of this species in Taiwan appears to be a more recent occurrence, suggesting that fishers are moving into deeper waters, probably as a result of the depletion of shallower water resources. As such, any expansion of commercial trawling may pose a threat to the species in the future and data is required on abundance and catches/landings, particularly in the NW Pacific, in order to accurately assess the species' conservation status.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Most common and widespread throughout the Northwest Pacific where it appears to be fairly abundant and mostly occurs at depths less than 500 m. Rare off New Caledonia, where it is captured in deeper waters. The species may be more common in deeper waters in the southern parts of its range.
Countries:
Native:
Australia (Western Australia); China; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; New Caledonia; Philippines; Taiwan, Province of China; Viet Nam
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Nothing is known of population structure and size; however, collections of this species from the Northwest Pacific consist of large numbers of hatchlings, small juveniles and adults which seems to indicate that all ontogenetic stages of this species are widespread and fairly abundant throughout this portion of the species' range. Only adults and subadult juveniles have been captured from off New Caledonia, and it is reported as being abundant off Western Australia (Last and Stevens 1994).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Relatively shallow water shelf and upper slope dweller, reported from depths of 20 to 550 m in the Northwest Pacific. Occurs in deeper slope waters (486 to 962 m) off New Caledonia and at depths of 440 to 520 m off Western Australia.

Oviparous, nothing is known of reproduction or spawning, but may spawn in relatively shallow water in the Northwest Pacific. Maximum length, including tail filament, is 110 cm TL; sexual maturity in males and females is reached at ~50 cm body length (BDL) (generally >65 cm TL).

Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (body length): >50 cm BDL (male & female).
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): 110 cm TL (includes long tail filament).
Size at birth (cm): Unknown.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: Unknown.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Chimaera phantasma is taken in local small scale and subsistence trawl fisheries as well as commercial fisheries in parts of Asia. It is commonly landed and utilised for human consumption in Taiwan and, given the intensity of fishing operations in large parts of its Asian range, likely other parts of the NW Pacific. The effects of fishing practices throughout the NW Pacific are unknown for this species although its abundance in some regions may suggest that current fishing practices may not be significantly impacting the population at this time. Landing of this species in Taiwan appears to be a more recent occurrence, suggesting that fishers are moving into deeper waters, probably as a result of the depletion of shallower water resources.

It is not known to be commercially fished or collected as bycatch in trawl fisheries off New Caledonia, perhaps due to its depth range which may be at or below the limit of many, if not most, trawl fishery operations in that region.

The species' occurrence off WA overlaps with the area of operation of the Australian Commonwealth managed Western Trawl Fisheries, which are small-scale, limited permit demersal fish and crustacean trawl fisheries (AFMA 2003). The species is likely taken as bycatch by these fisheries, but overall, effort is low and any impact upon this species would be minimal.

Any expansion of commercial trawling may pose a threat to the species in the future and data is required on abundance and catches/landings, particularly in the NW Pacific, to be able to accurately assess the species' conservation status.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No management or conservation measures are in place. At present the fishery for this species does not appear to be collecting large numbers of specimens or impacting the population; however, monitoring and reporting of local small-scale fishery landings throughout the Northwest Pacific is recommended. More data on this species from New Caledonia and the Eastern Indian is needed.

The development and implementation of management plans (national and/or regional e.g., under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA-Sharks) are required to facilitate the conservation and management of all chondrichthyan species in the regions where this species occurs.

Citation: Dagit, D.D. 2006. Chimaera phantasma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 August 2014.
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