|Scientific Name:||Himantura schmardae|
|Species Authority:||(Werner, 1904)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Compagno (1999) considered this a doubtful species and more studies are required to elucidate the taxonomic aspects of this species. The phylogenetic status and affinities of tropical Western Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Himantura are under review.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Charvet-Almeida, P. & de Almeida, M.P.|
|Reviewer(s):||Kyne, P.M. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)|
A large (to 200 cm disc width) tropical stingray that is distributed in the Western Central and Southwest Atlantic Ocean from Mexico to Brazil including the Lesser and Greater Antilles. Almost no data is available on its habitat, biology, ecology and population trends. However, it is caught as bycatch and used as a subsistence food source. Base-line studies, including taxonomic aspects, need to be elucidated for this species. Given its probable inshore occurrence in fished areas its conservation status will need to be reassessed once data are collected, particularly concerning catch levels. In the first instance though, the species' taxonomic status needs resolution.
|Range Description:||This tropical species is reportedly found on sandy bottoms and occasionally near coral reefs (Michael 1983) in the Gulf of Campeche (Mexico) to Brazil including the Lesser and Greater Antilles (Stehmann et al. 1978, Cervigón et al. 1992, Claro 1994, Almeida et al. in press). It has rarely been observed in the Amazon estuary region (Almeida et al. in press).|
Native:Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Barbados; Belize; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Dominica; Dominican Republic; French Guiana; Grenada; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is not very common within its range. Population size, trends and dynamics remain unknown for this species.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
No information was found on the habitat and ecology of this species. Most citations refer only to its presence in species lists. Probably occurs inshore including estuarine areas.
Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length cm): Unknown.
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (disc width): 200 cm DW (Cervigón et al. 1994).
Size at birth (cm): Unknown.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: Unknown.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.
This species is reportedly caught as bycatch in artisanal and industrial fisheries (hooking and netting). This species is also taken as a subsistence food source.
Intrinsic factors probably also represent a threat for this species as to most other elasmobranchs species (Camhi et al. 1998).
Research actions are urgently needed for this species. Preliminary base-line studies are required to obtain data on the biology, ecology, uses and fishery data of this species, and in the first instance taxonomic status.
Captures should also be monitored to observe if they are within a sustainable range.
Habitat maintenance and conservation should also be considered as conservation actions for this species.
The development and implementation of management plans (national and/or regional e.g., under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA-Sharks) are required to facilitate the conservation and sustainable management of all chondrichthyan species in the region. See Anon. (2004) for an update of progress made by nations in the range of H. schmardae.
|Citation:||Charvet-Almeida, P. & de Almeida, M.P. 2006. Himantura schmardae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 October 2014.|
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