|Scientific Name:||Hypanus say|
|Species Authority:||(Lesueur, 1817)|
Dasyatis say (Lesueur, 1817)
Dasyatis sayi (Lesueur, 1817)
Raja say Lesueur, 1817
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Last, P.R., Naylor, G.J.P. and Manjaji-Matsumoto, B.M. 2016. A revised classification of the family Dayatidae (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) based on new morphological and molecular insights. Zootaxa 4139(3): 345-368. http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4139.3.2.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||The genus Hypanus formerly was a junior synonym of Dasyatis (Kottelat, 2013); it was resurrected by Last et al. (2016) in their revision of the family Dasyatidae.
Until recently, the species name usually was spelled as sayi rather than say. This is not a synonymy, simply a change to conform to original spelling.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Snelson, F.F., Piercy, A. & Grubbs, R.D.|
|Reviewer(s):||Heupel, M.R., Kyne, P.M. & Fowler, S.L.|
This is an amended version of the 2006 assessment to accommodate the recent change in genus name from Dasyatis to Hypanus.
A medium-sized (to 78 cm disc width) inshore batoid of the Western Atlantic. Widespread and generally common, and locally abundant in parts of its centre of distribution in the US Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Inhabits bays, estuaries, lagoons and coastal waters usually at depths of <10 m (rarely to 20 m). Taken as bycatch in nearshore trawl and gillnet fisheries, in US waters mostly released with probable low mortality. There are no data to indicate any population declines. Little information available on catches and utilization in the Caribbean and southern parts of the species' range, however the species becomes rare and patchy further south and so any directed or incidental catches there would pose little threat to the global status of the species, although may affect local populations. Given its abundance, relatively widespread distribution and no major threats, the species is assessed as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Western Atlantic. Recorded from Massachusetts and New Jersey in the north (rare) to Florida Keys, eastern, northern and western Gulf of Mexico west to Texas and south to Mexico (rare), Greater and Lesser Antilles, eastern Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago. It has not been recorded from the southern Gulf of Mexico or the Caribbean coast of Central America. Records from Brazil and northern Argentina probably based on misidentifications of the recently described species Dasyatis hypostigma (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953, Castro-Aguirre and Perez 1996, McEachran and Fechhelm 1998, McEachran and de Carvalho 2002, Santos and de Carvalho 2004).|
Native:Antigua and Barbuda; Barbados; Cuba; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Grenada; Haiti; Jamaica; Mexico; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Trinidad and Tobago; United States (Alabama, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia); Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – northwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Centre of distribution and abundance is the US Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Species becomes rare and patchy further south. |
The species is common in Delaware Bay (Hess 1959), Chesapeake Bay (Murdy et al. 1997), the Indian River Lagoon system on the east coast of Florida (Snelson and Williams 1981), and the northern Gulf of Mexico (Funicelli 1975). Snelson et al. (1989) give tangle net CPUE data for the Indian River Lagoon system in Florida. CPUE varied seasonally and regionally with salinity, but no population trends were evident over three years. The species is taken occasionally in the VIMS (Virginia Institute of Marine Science) longline survey, but no population trends are evident from 1996-2003 (J. Musick et al. unpublished data).
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Benthic in bays, estuaries, lagoons and coastal waters, usually at depths <10 m, and rarely to 20 m. No permanent freshwater populations known. |
Reaches a maximum size of 78 cm DW. Viviparous with litters of 1 to 6 annually after a gestation period of 10 to 11 months (including a period of embryonic diapause).
Diet consists of benthic and infaunal invertebrates and demersal teleosts. Stomachs of three bluntnose stingrays in Chesapeake Bay contained the stomatopod Squilla empusa and the paralichthid flounder Etropus crossotus (D. Grubbs unpublished data).
Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (disc width): Female: 50 to 54 cm DW; Male: 30 to 36cm DW.
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (disc width): 78 cm DW.
Size at birth: 15 to 17 cm DW.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time: 10 to 11 months (including a period of embryonic diapause).
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: 1 to 6, mean 3.5, mode 3 young per litter.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.
Taken as bycatch in nearshore trawl and gillnet fisheries. In US waters, most are released, however, and mortality is probably low. Thorpe et al. (2001) reported bluntnose stingrays as minor bycatch in small-meshed, recreational gillnets and commercial gillnets targeting flounder in North Carolina.
Little information available on catches and utilization in the Caribbean and southern parts of the species' range. Probably taken as bycatch in these areas, however the species becomes rare and patchy further south and so any directed or incidental catches would pose little threat to the species as a whole, although may affect local populations.
Collection of data on bycatch of the species and use in southern parts of its range is required.
The development and implementation of management plans (national and/or regional e.g., under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA-Sharks) are required to facilitate the conservation and sustainable management of all chondrichthyan species in the region. See Anon. (2004) for an update of progress made by nations in the range of D. say.
|Citation:||Snelson, F.F., Piercy, A. & Grubbs, R.D. 2016. Hypanus say. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T60159A104138858.Downloaded on 25 March 2017.|
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