|Scientific Name:||Dasyatis hypostigma|
|Species Authority:||Santos & Carvalho, 2004|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Synonym = Dasyatis hipostigma (mis-spelling).
This species has been mistaken mainly for Dasyatis say but also for Dasyatis pastinaca in the past. The specific name has been mis-spelt as hipostigma, including in the original description.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Charvet-Almeida, P. & de Carvalho, M.R.|
|Reviewer(s):||Kyne, P.M. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)|
A small (~58 cm disc width) coastal and estuarine dasyatid species that was recently described and previously mistaken for other species. The life history aspects remain unknown but studies are in progress. This species is often caught as bycatch in shrimp bottom trawl nets and is used as a food source. These captures, along with coastal pollution and habitat destruction, seem to be the main threats for this species. Studies, bycatch monitoring and habitat maintenance and conservation are the recommended conservation measures. Given its inshore occurrence in fished areas its conservation status will need to be reassessed once data are collected, particularly concerning catch levels.
|Range Description:||Presently recognised from the southeastern and southern coasts of Brazil. Both the northern and southernmost limits of the species' range are not well defined and it may occur through Uruguay to Argentina as far as Mar del Plata (Santos and Carvalho 2004).|
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – southwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This is a very common species in southern and southeastern Brazil.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This coastal species has been captured in shallow waters, in depths that range from 5 to 80 m but commonly within 5 to 40 m (Santos and Carvalho 2004). It is also found in estuaries.
Since this species has been misidentified with at least one other dasyatid species, it is uncertain if any of the ecology data available truly corresponds to D. hypostigma or not. Life history parameters must be collected considering now the correct identification of this species.
Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length cm): Unknown.
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (disc width): 58 cm is the maximum DW indicated in the original description (Santos and Carvalho 2004).
Size at birth (cm): Unknown.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: Unknown.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.
Bottom trawl nets used in the artisanal and industrial shrimp fisheries are probably the biggest threat for this species. It is taken as bycatch in fisheries that take place mainly in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).
This species is also subject to threats caused by habitat loss/degradation and infrastructure development (mainly industry and human settlement) in regions near or around the bigger coastal cities where mangroves areas are being removed. Water pollution may also represent a threat for this species in some areas.
Intrinsic factors probably also represent a threat for this species as to most other elasmobranchs (Camhi et al. 1998). However, at present, little information is available on the biology of this species, partly due to misidentifications in the past.
Base-line research actions are required to obtain further life history data about this species including population data and trends. There are already studies in progress on some biological aspects.
Monitoring of the bycatch is needed to verify if this activity is sustainable or if it represents a significant threat for D. hypostigma. Management plans are also recommended for this species, particularly given its inshore occurrence in fished areas.
Habitat maintenance and conservation should also ensure coastal protected areas.
The development and implementation of a national management plan (e.g., under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA-Sharks) is required to facilitate the conservation and sustainable management of all chondrichthyan species in Brazil. At the time of writing, Brazil was in the progress of preparing a National Plan of Action (Anon. 2004), which is in urgent need of implementation.
|Citation:||Charvet-Almeida, P. & de Carvalho, M.R. 2006. Dasyatis hypostigma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 March 2015.|
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