|Scientific Name:||Tetronarce tremens|
|Species Authority:||(de Buen, 1959)|
Torpedo peruana Chirichigno, 1963
Torpedo tremens de Buen, 1959
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.). 2015. Catalog of Fishes. Updated 3 August 2015. Available at: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. (Accessed: 3 August 2015).|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Torpedo peruana Chirichigno, 1963 is tentatively recognised as a synonym of T. tremens de Buen, 1959 (Carvalho et al. 2002). The holotype of T. tremens is a 57 cm TL specimen captured by bottom trawl near Valparaíso, Chile. The family Torpedinidae contains a number of unresolved taxonomic problems and although there may be some debate as to the validity of T. tremens itself and its relationship to T. peruana, Carvalho et al. 2002 is followed here. Torpedo tremens is recognized as valid by McEachran (1995), Bearez (1996), Chirichigno and Cornejo (2001) and others.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Lamilla, J. & Romero, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Kyne, P.M., de Carvalho, M.R. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)|
A poorly known electric ray from the Eastern Pacific recorded from Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile. Has been reported from shallow inshore waters to a depth of 700 m (in Peru). Virtually nothing known of its biology, and no information available on interactions with fisheries, although it is most definitely taken as bycatch in various fisheries throughout its range. Research into distribution, life history and bycatch is a priority. Insufficient information to assess the species beyond Data Deficient at present.
|Range Description:||As presently known, range is disjunct in the Eastern Pacific, however, the species' distribution needs to be better defined.|
Native:Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; Peru
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||FishBase (Froese and Pauly 2004) reports this species occurring on the continental shelf, usually in very shallow waters. In Peru, however, it is reported to 700 m depth. In Chile it is reported from 20 to 60 m depth. This species is viviparous and feeds on invertebrates and small fishes. Nothing else is known of its biology. To a maximum size of 80 cm TL.
Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length cm): Unknown.
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): 80 cm TL.
Size at birth (cm): Unknown.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: Unknown.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.
|Major Threat(s):||There is no information on the catch of this species in targeted fisheries, although it is almost certainly taken as bycatch in various fisheries throughout its range.|
There are currently no management measures in place for this species. Research into its distribution and life history is of high priority.
The development and implementation of management plans (national and/or regional e.g., under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA-Sharks) are required to facilitate the conservation and sustainable management of all chondrichthyan species in the region. See Anon. (2004) for an update of progress made by nations in the range of T. tremens.
|Citation:||Lamilla, J. & Romero, M. 2006. Tetronarce tremens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2006: e.T60137A12311667. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.|
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