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Torpedo tremens

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA CHONDRICHTHYES RAJIFORMES TORPEDINIDAE

Scientific Name: Torpedo tremens
Species Authority: de Buen, 1959
Common Name(s):
English Chilean Torpedo, Torpedo Electric Ray
Spanish Tembladera
Synonym(s):
Torpedo peruana Chirichigno, 1963
Taxonomic Notes: Torpedo peruana Chirichigno, 1963 is tentatively recognised as a synonym of T. tremens de Buen, 1959 (Carvalho et al. 2002). The holotype of T. tremens is a 57 cm TL specimen captured by bottom trawl near Valparaíso, Chile. The family Torpedinidae contains a number of unresolved taxonomic problems and although there may be some debate as to the validity of T. tremens itself and its relationship to T. peruana, Carvalho et al. 2002 is followed here. Torpedo tremens is recognized as valid by McEachran (1995), Bearez (1996), Chirichigno and Cornejo (2001) and others.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2006
Date Assessed: 2006-01-31
Assessor(s): Lamilla, J. & Romero, M.
Reviewer(s): Kyne, P.M., de Carvalho, M.R. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)
Justification:
A poorly known electric ray from the Eastern Pacific recorded from Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile. Has been reported from shallow inshore waters to a depth of 700 m (in Peru). Virtually nothing known of its biology, and no information available on interactions with fisheries, although it is most definitely taken as bycatch in various fisheries throughout its range. Research into distribution, life history and bycatch is a priority. Insufficient information to assess the species beyond Data Deficient at present.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: As presently known, range is disjunct in the Eastern Pacific, however, the species' distribution needs to be better defined.
Countries:
Native:
Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; Peru
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Unknown.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: FishBase (Froese and Pauly 2004) reports this species occurring on the continental shelf, usually in very shallow waters. In Peru, however, it is reported to 700 m depth. In Chile it is reported from 20 to 60 m depth. This species is viviparous and feeds on invertebrates and small fishes. Nothing else is known of its biology. To a maximum size of 80 cm TL.

Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length cm): Unknown.
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): 80 cm TL.
Size at birth (cm): Unknown.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: Unknown.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There is no information on the catch of this species in targeted fisheries, although it is almost certainly taken as bycatch in various fisheries throughout its range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are currently no management measures in place for this species. Research into its distribution and life history is of high priority.

The development and implementation of management plans (national and/or regional e.g., under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA?Sharks) are required to facilitate the conservation and sustainable management of all chondrichthyan species in the region. See Anon. (2004) for an update of progress made by nations in the range of T. tremens.

Citation: Lamilla, J. & Romero, M. 2006. Torpedo tremens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 October 2014.
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