|Scientific Name:||Torpedo adenensis|
|Species Authority:||Carvalho, Stehmann & Manilo, 2002|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||de Carvalho, M.R. & McCord, M.E.|
|Reviewer(s):||Fowler, S.L. & Kyne, P.M. (Shark Red List Authority)|
An apparently restricted range torpedo ray known only from the eastern Gulf of Aden off the coast of Yemen. Recorded from depths of 26 to 140 m but little known of its biology. Few specimens of T. adenensis have been caught/identified although commercial shrimp trawl fisheries operate throughout its range, raising concern for this sluggush benthic species which has a small known distribution and which is possibly endemic to the eastern Gulf of Aden. It is extremely unlikely that shrimp trawl fisheries in that area will decrease or cease in the future, and the population is likely to become depleted through bycatch mortality (indeed declines may have already occurred but there are no data to consider this possibility). Surveying to further document its distribution and an examination of bycatch levels is a priority.
|Range Description:||Torpedo adenensis has been collected from three distinct but adjacent localities from the eastern Gulf of Aden, close to the Yemen coastline (Carvalho et al. 2002). The distribution is thought to be limited and T. adenensis may possibly be endemic to the eastern Gulf of Aden.|
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – western
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Unknown, but the limited distribution may indicate that population numbers are low.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Torpedo adenensis has been found in depths of 26 to 140 m. Little known of its biology. Reaches sexual maturity between 28.0 and 39.5 cm TL in both males and females. A subadult male was recorded at 27.7 cm TL and a mature male was recorded at 39.7 cm TL (Carvalho et al. 2002).
Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length): Between 28.0 and 39.5 cm TL (Carvalho et al. 2002) (female); Between 28.0 and 39.5 cm TL (Carvalho et al. 2002) (male).
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): 41 cm TL.
Size at birth (cm): Unknown.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: Unknown.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.
|Major Threat(s):||Commercial shrimp trawling occurs across the known range of this species. If this species is endemic to the Gulf of Aden, it may be at high risk due to being taken as bycatch in these fisheries. Its benthic nature makes this species, as with other sluggish torpedo rays, susceptible to capture in trawl gear. It is extremely unlikely that shrimp trawl fisheries in that area will decrease or cease in the future, and the population is likely to become depleted through bycatch mortality (indeed declines may have already occurred but there are no data to consider this possibility). Presumably discarded when taken as bycatch, but survivorship is not known (although thought to be low).|
Surveying to determine population status and distribution is required, as is an analysis of the threat from shrimp trawling. Regulation of shrimp trawling, particularly closed areas may be a necessary conservation measure given its likely endemism.
The development and implementation of a national management plan (under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA-Sharks) is required to facilitate the conservation and management of all elasmobranch species in Yemen.
|Citation:||de Carvalho, M.R. & McCord, M.E. 2006. Torpedo adenensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 March 2015.|
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