|Scientific Name:||Zygonyx torridus (Kirby, 1889)|
Pseudomacromia atlantica Martin, 1900
Pseudomacromia torrida Kirby, 1889
Zygonyx torrida (Kirby, 1889) [orth. error]
Zygonyx torridus (Kirby, 1899) ssp. insulanus Pinhey, 1981
Zygonyx torridus (Kirbyi, 1899) ssp. isis Fraser, 1924
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Schorr, M. and Paulson, D. 2015. World Odonata List. Revision 22 December 2015. Tacoma, Washington, USA Available at: http://www.pugetsound.edu/academics/academic-resources/slater-museum/biodiversity-resources/dragonflies/world-odonata-list2/.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv) (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||De Knijf, G., Ferreira, S. & Riservato, E.|
European regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU)
EU 27 assessment: Vulnarable (VU)
There are presently (1980 onwards) not more than 18 localities of Zygonyx torridus in Europe, but the populations are extremely fragmented in two aggregates, one in the Canary Islands and the other one in South Iberia. One more record is available from Sicily. One recently known population is now extinct (Kunz et al. 2006). Both subpopulations may be possibly connected with the small Moroccan population, but no data exists in this respect.
In Spain, several populations have been lost within the last 20 years due to water use for tourism and agriculture. Ongoing climate change may result in the loss of more locations in the future. In Portugal, the species could not be confirmed since its first records in 1985, possibly due to lack of field investigation.
The Canary Islands and particularly Tenerife and Gran Canaria suffer from drought, which has been reported as early as 1967 due to the depletion of the primary Laurisylva ecosystem. Many wells in Tenerife were already dry in 1967, many streamlets are now almost dry in summer and, as an indicator, moist loving ferns have undergone a severe reduction between 1920 and 1970 (Malmquist et al. 1993). The situation is not better at Gran Canaria, where only three permanent streams subsist, in addition to some permanent summer pools in temporary streams and small springs (Nilsson et al. 1998). A future degradation of the habitat and a future decline of the species is expected.
Although the species had been assessed NT in the overall Mediterranean Bassin and in North Africa, it should be regarded as Threatened in its European range (EN B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv)). However, due to its evident mobility a rescue effect from North Africa to the Canary Islands and continental Spain remains possible and therefore its status is downgraded to Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||Zygonyx torridus is a widespread African and oriental species with a range extending in the northwest to the Canary Islands, South Iberia, and Turkey and Iran in the east (Bemmerle 2005, Boudot et al. 2009, Kunz et al. 2006). Its distribution in Europe shows a patchy belt with either aggregated or isolated localities stretching from the Canary Islands to South Spain and Sicily (Italy).|
Native:Italy (Sicilia); Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Spain (Canary Is., Spain (mainland))
|Population:||In Europe, the species is rare, localised and sometimes incidental, though occasionally it is locally common. Although there is only one record in Sicily and in Portugal, the species is much more common and well established in the Canary Islands and in some Spanish localities.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Typical habitats of Z. torridus in Europe are waterfalls and rapid stretches of permanent rivers and brooks which are partly shaded in the warmer parts of Europe. This is a very mobile species which may be met as groups of vagrant adults elsewhere than in their true reproducing habitats. This species has a good dispersal ability.|
|Major Threat(s):||In Iberia and the Canary Islands, human impacts on the natural freshwater resources are the main threat (Kunz et al. 2006). The destruction of Mediterranean running water systems as a result of human consumption for agriculture, urbanization and tourism increase rapidly. Water pollution, over-irrigation with lowering of the water-table and stream drying up, river damming and spring capture are also key threats. Together with climate change with increased drought periods this may result in the loss of breeding habitat.|
|Conservation Actions:||A regulation of water use and pollution levels in its distribution range is needed and the present breeding habitats should be preserved.|
|Citation:||Boudot, J.-P. 2010. Zygonyx torridus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T60078A12226053.Downloaded on 17 January 2018.|
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