|Scientific Name:||Trithemis kirbyi|
|Species Authority:||Selys, 1891|
Trithemis kirbyi Selys, 1891 ssp. ardens (Gerstäcker, 1891)
The former splitting into a nominotypical form and a subspecies Trithemis kirbyi ardens (Gerstäcker, 1891) is currently challenged because of different opinions on biogeographic interpretation in the distribution of phenotypes.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Boudot, J.-P., Clausnitzer, V., Samraoui, B., Suhling, F., Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & Schneider, W.|
|Reviewer(s):||Samways, M.J. & Kipping, J.|
This ubiquitous and nomadic species is widespread with no known major threats. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Trithemis kirbyi is widespread from Africa (except in rainforest areas) to India. The range is extending to the north and it recently began to spread in southern Europe (southern Spain, Sardinia). Surprisingly, it does not occur in the Levant and large parts of the Middle East.|
In the Arabian Peninsula, Trithemis kirbyi is widespread on the western and eastern margins, where it remains confined to the southern half of the peninsula. One hundred and twenty five records are available from 88 distinct localities in 65 sites over 1,300,000 km². Thirty-eight percent of the records dates from 1990 onwards but only nine percent are from 2000 onwards. Recently, new records are available from 2009, 2010 and 2011 (Samraoui pers. obs., Schneider pers. obs.).
Native:Algeria; Angola (Angola, Angola, Cabinda); Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Chad; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea-Bissau; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Italy (Sardegna); Kenya; Liberia; Libya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia (Caprivi Strip, Namibia (main part)); Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Somalia; South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape Province, North-West Province, Western Cape); Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Tunisia; Uganda; United Arab Emirates; Yemen (North Yemen, South Yemen); Zambia; Zimbabwe
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species was always common in large parts of its African and Arabian range and increased during the last 50 years in the Maghreb. It recently (in 2008) crossed the Straight of Gibraltar to settle in Spain and the Mediterranean to reach Sardinia. European subpopulations are still low but will probably increase during the next decades due to climate change.|
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Trithemis kirbyi is an opportunistic species which rapidly colonies all kinds of freshwater habitats. The larvae develop in perennial and temporary desert waters thanks to a short larval period (less than 50 days). It is the most common species in all kinds of desert freshwater. Adults are found at pools, ponds, swimming pools and water tanks, as well as along wadis, brooks, streams and rivers. They settle on boulders and rocks or perch on twigs of reeds and rush.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||No|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not utilised.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is not under threat at the global scale, although pollution and over use of water by humans may cause it to decline locally.|
|Conservation Actions:||This opportunistic and ubiquitous species does not need conservation actions.|
|Citation:||Boudot, J.-P., Clausnitzer, V., Samraoui, B., Suhling, F., Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & Schneider, W. 2016. Trithemis kirbyi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T60062A83875068.Downloaded on 23 January 2017.|
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