Epicrionops bicolor 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Gymnophiona Rhinatrematidae

Scientific Name: Epicrionops bicolor Boulenger, 1883
Common Name(s):
English Two-coloured Caecilian, Bicolored Caecilian, Two-colored Caecilian
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: Taylor (1968) recognized two subspecies, the status of which require more research. It is likely to be a complex of more than one species, and biological populations on the eastern versant of the Andes could possibly correspond to one or more taxa (A. Catenazzi pers. comm. March 2014), but until such time as this is clarified they are included in the current assessment.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2013-07-19
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Catenazzi, A., Icochea M., J., Lynch, J., Coloma, L.A., Wilkinson, M., von May, R. & Ron, S.R.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Angulo, A. & Jarvis, L.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and presumed large population. However, given its apparent absence from previously known areas and taxonomic uncertainty surrounding these specific subpopulations, both taxonomic research and population monitoring are needed to determine the biological identity and population status of these subpopulations.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found on the Pacific slopes of the Andes in Colombia (Department of Valle del Cauca) and Ecuador (Provinces of Cotopaxi and El Oro), and the Amazonian slopes of the Andes in southern Ecuador (Zamora Chinchipe Province) and southern Peru (Regions of Junín and Cusco). It has been found at elevations of 1,750-2,000 m asl, although there has also been a record from 420 m asl in Cusco, Peru (C. Torres in litt. to R. von May 2008), which in itself could comprise a different taxon.
Countries occurrence:
Colombia; Ecuador; Peru
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):420
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is very little information, but large collections have been made on a few occasions. In the early 1990s, numerous individuals were collected from Manu National Park's cloud forest as part of ongoing surveys of the area. However, the same areas where these collections were made have been surveyed (targeting the species) on a regular basis since 1996, but it has never been seen since (A. Catenazzi pers. comm. March 2014). It is unclear at this point whether this may be due to subpopulations having a very restricted distribution, experiencing population declines, or whether they may experience extreme fluctuations (A. Catenazzi pers. comm. March 2014). Elsewhere in the Region of Cusco one individual was found during 18 person/day surveys during 2006 (von May et al. 2008). 

Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a subterranean species living in primary cloud forests, submontane forests and foothill forests. It is associated with streams. Its ability to adapt to secondary habitats is not known. It is presumed to lay eggs on land, with the larvae developing in streams.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Possible threats include loss of mountain forest for livestock, agricultural activities and water pollution, but the significance of these depends on the ability of the species to adapt to change.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: In Ecuador, its geographic range overlaps with Reserva Ecológica Los Illinizas and Reserva Biológica Tapichalaca. In Peru, it is present in the montane region of Parque Nacional Manu and its range in this country overlaps with various other protected areas. Clarification of the taxonomic status of those biological populations east of the Andes is urgently required, especially in view of its apparent recent absence in the montane area of Manu, which would also call for population monitoring efforts. Research into its ecology and resistance to habitat disturbance is needed.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2014. Epicrionops bicolor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T59639A43784119. . Downloaded on 21 June 2018.
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