Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Gymnophiona Ichthyophiidae

Scientific Name: Ichthyophis glutinosus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English White-bellied Caecilia, Sticky Caecilian, Glutinous Caecilia, Common Yellow-banded Caecilian, Ceylon Caecilian, White-bellied Caecilian
Caecilia glutinosa Linnaeus, 1758
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This is a poorly circumscribed species in need of taxonomic review (M. Wilkinson pers. comm.). Specimens from Welegama resemble Ichthyophis glutinosus, but appear to be more closely related to I. orthoplicatus. They could represent an undescribed cryptic species (Gower et al. 2005).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, David Gower, Mark Wilkinson, Oommen V. Oommen
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Least Concern since, although its Extent of Occurrence is probably less than 20,000 km2, it is common and adaptable with a presumed large population, and it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to central and southwestern Sri Lanka. It has been recorded at elevations of 50-1,355m asl. A record from northeastern India has been disputed, and is highly improbable.
Countries occurrence:
Sri Lanka
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: At places within its range it appears to be locally abundant.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is a subterranean species present in evergreen forests, paddy fields, rubber plantations, rural gardens and farms, wetlands (boggy areas), and cattle pastureland. Adults are often found in humus, dung and rotten vegetation; the eggs are laid on land and the larvae live in flowing water.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species might be threatened locally by extreme habitat loss and agro-chemical pollution (both land and water based). However, overall it is a very adaptable species that is not significantly threatened.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It has been recorded from the well-protected areas of Sinharaja World Heritage Site, Dellawa Forest Reserve, Knuckles Range Forest Reserve and the Udawattakele Forest Reserve.

Citation: Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, David Gower, Mark Wilkinson, Oommen V. Oommen. 2004. Ichthyophis glutinosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T59618A11969482. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
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